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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Background Development of tumours such as adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), choroid plexus tumours (CPT) or female breast cancers before age 31 or multiple primary cancers belonging to the Li-Fraumeni (LFS) spectrum is, independently of the familial history, highly suggestive of a germline TP53 mutation. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of de novo and mosaic mutations to LFS. Methods and results Among 328 unrelated patients harbouring a germline TP53 mutation identified by Sanger sequencing and/or QMPSF, we could show that the mutations had occurred de novo in 40 cases, without detectable parental age effect. Sanger sequencing revealed two mosaic mutations in a child with ACC and in an unaffected father of a child with medulloblastoma. Re-analysis of blood DNA by next-generation sequencing, performed at a depth above 500X, from 108 patients suggestive of LFS without detectable TP53 mutations, allowed us to identify 6 additional cases of mosaic TP53 mutations, in 2/49 children with ACC, 2/21 children with CPT, in 1/31 women with breast cancer before age 31 and in a patient who developed an osteosarcoma at age 12, a breast carcinoma and a breast sarcoma at age 35. Conclusions This study performed on a large series of TP53 mutation carriers allows estimating the contribution to LFS of de novo mutations to at least 14% (48/336) and suggests that approximately one-fifth of these de novo mutations occur during embryonic development. Considering the medical impact of TP53 mutation identification, medical laboratories in charge of TP53 testing should ensure the detection of mosaic mutations.
    Print ISSN: 0022-2593
    Electronic ISSN: 1468-6244
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing Group
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is associated with rare hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, consensus medulloblastoma predisposition genes have not been defined and screening guidelines for genetic counselling and testing for paediatric patients are not available. We aimed to assess and define these genes to provide evidence for future screening guidelines. METHODS: In this international, multicentre study, we analysed patients with medulloblastoma from retrospective cohorts (International Cancer Genome Consortium [ICGC] PedBrain, Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium [MAGIC], and the CEFALO series) and from prospective cohorts from four clinical studies (SJMB03, SJMB12, SJYC07, and I-HIT-MED). Whole-genome sequences and exome sequences from blood and tumour samples were analysed for rare damaging germline mutations in cancer predisposition genes. DNA methylation profiling was done to determine consensus molecular subgroups: WNT (MBWNT), SHH (MBSHH), group 3 (MBGroup3), and group 4 (MBGroup4). Medulloblastoma predisposition genes were predicted on the basis of rare variant burden tests against controls without a cancer diagnosis from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). Previously defined somatic mutational signatures were used to further classify medulloblastoma genomes into two groups, a clock-like group (signatures 1 and 5) and a homologous recombination repair deficiency-like group (signatures 3 and 8), and chromothripsis was investigated using previously established criteria. Progression-free survival and overall survival were modelled for patients with a genetic predisposition to medulloblastoma. FINDINGS: We included a total of 1022 patients with medulloblastoma from the retrospective cohorts (n=673) and the four prospective studies (n=349), from whom blood samples (n=1022) and tumour samples (n=800) were analysed for germline mutations in 110 cancer predisposition genes. In our rare variant burden analysis, we compared these against 53 105 sequenced controls from ExAC and identified APC, BRCA2, PALB2, PTCH1, SUFU, and TP53 as consensus medulloblastoma predisposition genes according to our rare variant burden analysis and estimated that germline mutations accounted for 6% of medulloblastoma diagnoses in the retrospective cohort. The prevalence of genetic predispositions differed between molecular subgroups in the retrospective cohort and was highest for patients in the MBSHH subgroup (20% in the retrospective cohort). These estimates were replicated in the prospective clinical cohort (germline mutations accounted for 5% of medulloblastoma diagnoses, with the highest prevalence [14%] in the MBSHH subgroup). Patients with germline APC mutations developed MBWNT and accounted for most (five [71%] of seven) cases of MBWNT that had no somatic CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations. Patients with germline mutations in SUFU and PTCH1 mostly developed infant MBSHH. Germline TP53 mutations presented only in childhood patients in the MBSHH subgroup and explained more than half (eight [57%] of 14) of all chromothripsis events in this subgroup. Germline mutations in PALB2 and BRCA2 were observed across the MBSHH, MBGroup3, and MBGroup4 molecular subgroups and were associated with mutational signatures typical of homologous recombination repair deficiency. In patients with a genetic predisposition to medulloblastoma, 5-year progression-free survival was 52% (95% CI 40-69) and 5-year overall survival was 65% (95% CI 52-81); these survival estimates differed significantly across patients with germline mutations in different medulloblastoma predisposition genes. INTERPRETATION: Genetic counselling and testing should be used as a standard-of-care procedure in patients with MBWNT and MBSHH because these patients have the highest prevalence of damaging germline mutations in known cancer predisposition genes. We propose criteria for routine genetic screening for patients with medulloblastoma based on clinical and mole
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29753700
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  • 3
    Abstract: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited condition caused by germline mutations of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene encoding p53, a transcription factor triggered as a protective cellular mechanism against different stressors. Loss of p53 function renders affected individuals highly susceptible to a broad range of solid and hematologic cancers. It has recently become evident that children and adults with LFS benefit from intensive surveillance aimed at early tumor detection. In October 2016, the American Association for Cancer Research held a meeting of international LFS experts to evaluate the current knowledge on LFS and propose consensus surveillance recommendations. Herein, we briefly summarize clinical and genetic aspects of this aggressive cancer predisposition syndrome. In addition, the expert panel concludes that there are sufficient existing data to recommend that all patients with LFS be offered cancer surveillance as soon as the clinical or molecular LFS diagnosis is established. Specifically, the panel recommends adoption of a modified version of the "Toronto protocol" that includes a combination of physical exams, blood tests, and imaging. The panel also recommends that further research be promoted to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of these risk-adapted surveillance and cancer prevention strategies while addressing the psychosocial needs of individuals and families with LFS. Clin Cancer Res; 23(11); e38-e45. (c)2017 AACRSee all articles in the online-only CCR Pediatric Oncology Series.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28572266
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1399-3038
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: GM-CSF induces proliferation and activation of Langerhans’ cells in vitro. The density of Langerhans’ cells in human tumours is correlated to the in situ density of GM-CSF, and intradermal injection of GM-CSF induces local accumulation of Langerhans’ cells. Therefore, we investigated the presence of GM-CSF in the sera of children with Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (LCH). We detected GM-CSF in the sera of all children with disseminated and active LCH, but not in the sera of patients with localized (i.e. bone) LCH. These results suggest that GM-CSF level is related to extent and the activity of LCH.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Keywords: ABMT ; anaplastic large-cell lymphoma ; children ; relapse ; vinblastine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose:to study response to chemotherapy and the outcome ofchildren treated for a relapsed anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) and toevaluate the role of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in these patients. Patients and methods:Clinical data concerning the 41 relapsesthat occurred in 119 patients with ALCL enrolled in 3 consecutive studiessince 1975 were analysed. First-line treatment consisted of intensivechemotherapy according to the COPAD protocol for the first series of 12patients treated between 1975 and 1989 and to the SFOP (French Society ofPediatric Oncology) HM protocols for the 30 patients treated between 1989 and1997. Twenty-eight patients were treated with CV(B)A (CCNU, vinblastine, ara-Cwith or without bleomycin), and the others with miscellaneous protocols forrecurrent disease. Fifteen patients underwent autologous BMT and 1 allogeneicBMT while in CR2. Results:Thirty-six of forty-one (88%) patients achievedCR2. With a median follow-up of 5 years, 12 patients died, 9 of their diseaseand 29 patients are alive in CR2 (20 patients), CR3 (5 patients), CR4 (2patients), CR5 (1 patient) or CR6 (1 patient). Overall and disease-freesurvival are respectively 69% (53%–82%) and44% (29%–61%) at three years. In univariateanalysis, patients treated with ABMT while in CR2 did not appear to have abetter outcome than the other. Remarkably, a long-lasting remission wasobtained in 8 of 13 patients treated with weekly vinblastine for a relapseincluding 6 relapses occurring after ABMT. Conclusions:Relapsed ALCL are highly chemosensitive but over40% of the patients experience several relapses. Prolonged conventionalchemotherapy based on vinblastine might, in some cases, be as efficient asshort intensive treatment with ABMT.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-10-21
    Description: So far, no common environmental and/or phenotypic factor has been associated with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The known risk factors for melanoma include sun exposure, pigmentation and nevus phenotypes; risk factors associated with RCC include smoking, obesity and hypertension. A recent study of coexisting melanoma and RCC in the same patients supports a genetic predisposition underlying the association between these two cancers. The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) has been proposed to act as a melanoma oncogene; it also stimulates the transcription of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1A), the pathway of which is targeted by kidney cancer susceptibility genes. We therefore proposed that MITF might have a role in conferring a genetic predisposition to co-occurring melanoma and RCC. Here we identify a germline missense substitution in MITF (Mi-E318K) that occurred at a significantly higher frequency in genetically enriched patients affected with melanoma, RCC or both cancers, when compared with controls. Overall, Mi-E318K carriers had a higher than fivefold increased risk of developing melanoma, RCC or both cancers. Codon 318 is located in a small-ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) consensus site (PsiKXE) and Mi-E318K severely impaired SUMOylation of MITF. Mi-E318K enhanced MITF protein binding to the HIF1A promoter and increased its transcriptional activity compared to wild-type MITF. Further, we observed a global increase in Mi-E318K-occupied loci. In an RCC cell line, gene expression profiling identified a Mi-E318K signature related to cell growth, proliferation and inflammation. Lastly, the mutant protein enhanced melanocytic and renal cell clonogenicity, migration and invasion, consistent with a gain-of-function role in tumorigenesis. Our data provide insights into the link between SUMOylation, transcription and cancer.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bertolotto, Corine -- Lesueur, Fabienne -- Giuliano, Sandy -- Strub, Thomas -- de Lichy, Mahaut -- Bille, Karine -- Dessen, Philippe -- d'Hayer, Benoit -- Mohamdi, Hamida -- Remenieras, Audrey -- Maubec, Eve -- de la Fouchardiere, Arnaud -- Molinie, Vincent -- Vabres, Pierre -- Dalle, Stephane -- Poulalhon, Nicolas -- Martin-Denavit, Tanguy -- Thomas, Luc -- Andry-Benzaquen, Pascale -- Dupin, Nicolas -- Boitier, Francoise -- Rossi, Annick -- Perrot, Jean-Luc -- Labeille, Bruno -- Robert, Caroline -- Escudier, Bernard -- Caron, Olivier -- Brugieres, Laurence -- Saule, Simon -- Gardie, Betty -- Gad, Sophie -- Richard, Stephane -- Couturier, Jerome -- Teh, Bin Tean -- Ghiorzo, Paola -- Pastorino, Lorenza -- Puig, Susana -- Badenas, Celia -- Olsson, Hakan -- Ingvar, Christian -- Rouleau, Etienne -- Lidereau, Rosette -- Bahadoran, Philippe -- Vielh, Philippe -- Corda, Eve -- Blanche, Helene -- Zelenika, Diana -- Galan, Pilar -- French Familial Melanoma Study Group -- Aubin, Francois -- Bachollet, Bertrand -- Becuwe, Celine -- Berthet, Pascaline -- Bignon, Yves Jean -- Bonadona, Valerie -- Bonafe, Jean-Louis -- Bonnet-Dupeyron, Marie-Noelle -- Cambazard, Frederic -- Chevrant-Breton, Jacqueline -- Coupier, Isabelle -- Dalac, Sophie -- Demange, Liliane -- d'Incan, Michel -- Dugast, Catherine -- Faivre, Laurence -- Vincent-Fetita, Lynda -- Gauthier-Villars, Marion -- Gilbert, Brigitte -- Grange, Florent -- Grob, Jean-Jacques -- Humbert, Philippe -- Janin, Nicolas -- Joly, Pascal -- Kerob, Delphine -- Lasset, Christine -- Leroux, Dominique -- Levang, Julien -- Limacher, Jean-Marc -- Livideanu, Cristina -- Longy, Michel -- Lortholary, Alain -- Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique -- Mansard, Sandrine -- Mansuy, Ludovic -- Marrou, Karine -- Mateus, Christine -- Maugard, Christine -- Meyer, Nicolas -- Nogues, Catherine -- Souteyrand, Pierre -- Venat-Bouvet, Laurence -- Zattara, Helene -- Chaudru, Valerie -- Lenoir, Gilbert M -- Lathrop, Mark -- Davidson, Irwin -- Avril, Marie-Francoise -- Demenais, Florence -- Ballotti, Robert -- Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 19;480(7375):94-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10539.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] INSERM, U895 (equipe 1), Equipe labelisee Ligue Contre le Cancer, C3M, 06204 Nice, France [2] Universite of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, UFR Medecine, 06204 Nice, France [3] Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Service de Dermatologie, 06204 Nice, France [4].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012259" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carcinoma, Renal Cell/*genetics ; Cell Movement/genetics ; Gene Frequency ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; *Germ-Line Mutation ; Humans ; Melanoma/*genetics ; Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor/*genetics ; Neoplasm Invasiveness/genetics ; Sumoylation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-12-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bertolotto, Corine -- Lesueur, Fabienne -- Giuliano, Sandy -- Strub, Thomas -- de Lichy, Mahaut -- Bille, Karine -- Dessen, Philippe -- d'Hayer, Benoit -- Mohamdi, Hamida -- Remenieras, Audrey -- Maubec, Eve -- de la Fouchardiere, Arnaud -- Molinie, Vincent -- Vabres, Pierre -- Dalle, Stephane -- Poulalhon, Nicolas -- Martin-Denavit, Tanguy -- Thomas, Luc -- Andry-Benzaquen, Pascale -- Dupin, Nicolas -- Boitier, Francoise -- Rossi, Annick -- Perrot, Jean-Luc -- Labeille, Bruno -- Robert, Caroline -- Escudier, Bernard -- Caron, Olivier -- Brugieres, Laurence -- Saule, Simon -- Gardie, Betty -- Gad, Sophie -- Richard, Stephane -- Couturier, Jerome -- Teh, Bin Tean -- Ghiorzo, Paola -- Pastorino, Lorenza -- Puig, Susana -- Badenas, Celia -- Olsson, Hakan -- Ingvar, Christian -- Rouleau, Etienne -- Lidereau, Rosette -- Bahadoran, Philippe -- Vielh, Philippe -- Corda, Eve -- Blanche, Helene -- Zelenika, Diana -- Galan, Pilar -- French Familial Melanoma Study Group -- Chaudru, Valerie -- Lenoir, Gilbert M -- Lathrop, Mark -- Davidson, Irwin -- Avril, Marie-Francoise -- Demenais, Florence -- Ballotti, Robert -- Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):126. doi: 10.1038/nature16158. Epub 2015 Dec 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26633630" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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