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  • 1
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] Tomatoes are a principal dietary source of carotenoids and flavonoids, both of which are highly beneficial for human health. Overexpression of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes or transcription factors have resulted in tomatoes with improved carotenoid or flavonoid content, but never ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] We have used a strategy of hybrid gene synthesis and constant domain shuffling to construct and functionally express in Escherichia coli genes encoding two anti–carbohydrate Fabs, one specific for a Brucella cell–surface polysaccharide and the second for the human blood group A ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Auxin ; Cell elongation ; Epidermis peeling ; Fusicoccin ; Pisum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of peeling and wounding on the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and fusicoccin (FC) growth response of etiolated Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska stem tissue were examined. Over a 5 h growth period, peeling was found to virtually eliminate the IAA response, but about 30% of the FC response remained. In contrast, unpeeled segments wounded with six vertical slits exhibited significant responses to both IAA and FC, indicating that peeling does not act by damaging the tissue. Microscopy showed that the epidermis was removed intact and that the underlying tissue was essentially undamaged. Neither the addition of 2% sucrose to the incubation medium nor the use of a range of IAA concentrations down to 10-8 M restored IAA-induced growth in peeled segments, suggesting that lack of osmotic solutes and supra-optimal uptake of IAA were not important factors over this time period. It is concluded that, although the possibility remains that peeling merely allows leakage of hydrogen ions into the medium, it seems more likely that peeling off the epidermis removes the auxin responsive tissue.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Auxin (2,4-D), xyloglucan breakdown ; Cotyledon ; 1,4-β-d-Glucanase (endo-) ; Germination (seed) ; Seed germination ; Tropaeolum ; Xyloglucan
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Rapid mobilisation of storage products, including xyloglucan, in cotyledons of germinating nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) normally starts about 7–8 d after imbibition and growth of the seedling at 20–25° C. Levels of activity of endo-1,4-β-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) in cotyledons, as assayed viscometrically with xyloglucan as substrate, varied in parallel with the rate of breakdown of xyloglucan. When cotyledons were excised from the seedling axis and incubated on moist filter paper at any point before 7 d, the catabolic reactions which normally occurred in the intact seedling were suspended. If, however, cotyledons excised at 8 d were incubated in 10−6 M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a rise in endo-1,4-β-glucanase (xyloglucanase) activity was observed and a sharp decrease in fresh and dry weight as well as xyloglucan levels ensued at rates comparable to those observed in cotyledons attached to the seedling. Neither gibberellin nor kinetin treatments promoted xyloglucan breakdown or enhanced xyloglucanase activity. Addition of auxin to excised cotyledons before 7 d did not evoke premature breakdown, indicating that the tissue became receptive to auxin only at this time. The triggering process took place in darkness and was unaffected by various light-dark cycles. It is concluded that the sudden degradation of xyloglucan which occurs in nasturtium seeds about a week after germination begins is the result of enhanced activity of a depolymerizing xyloglucanase, this activity being evoked by auxin originating in the emerging seedling axis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: auxin ; cell expansion ; cellulase ; endo-1,4-β-glucanase ; ethylene ; gene expression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Plant developmental processes involving modifications to cell wall structure, such as cell expansion, organ abscission and fruit ripening, are accompanied by increased enzyme activity and mRNA abundance of endo-1,4-β-glucanases (EGases). An EGase cDNA clone, Ce14, isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) has been shown to be identical to a tomato pistil-predominant EGase cDNA, TPP18. In addition to its previously reported expression during certain stages of early pistil development, Ce14 mRNA was also detected at high levels in the growing zones of etiolated hypocotyls (about 2.5-fold less than in pistils) and in young expanding leaves (about 3.5-fold less than in pistils). The abundance of Ce14 mRNA declined precipitously in older tissues as cells became fully expanded, and was barely detectable in mature vegetative tissues. Ce14 mRNA abundance was also low in abscission zones, and did not increase as abscission progressed. In fruit, Ce14 mRNA was present at low levels during fruit expansion, but was essentially absent during subsequent fruit development and ripening. Treatment of etiolated hypocotyls with ethylene or high concentrations of auxin sufficient to induce rapid lateral cell expansion and hypocotyl swelling also brought about an approximate doubling of Ce14 mRNA abundance, suggesting that Ce14 mRNA accumulation may be promoted directly or indirectly by ethylene. Thus, accumulation of Ce14 mRNA was found to be correlated with rapid cell expansion in pistils, hypocotyls and leaves.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: expansin ; fruit growth ; fruit softening ; gene expression ; Lycopersicon esculentum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract cDNA clones encoding homologues of expansins, a class of cell wall proteins involved in cell wall modification, were isolated from various stages of growing and ripening fruit of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). cDNAs derived from five unique expansin genes were obtained, termed tomato Exp3 to Exp7, in addition to the previously described ripening-specific tomato Exp1 (Rose et al. (1997) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 5955–5960). Deduced amino acid sequences of tomato Exp1, Exp4 and Exp6 were highly related, whereas Exp3, Exp5 and Exp7 were more divergent. Each of the five expansin genes showed a different and characteristic pattern of mRNA expression. mRNA of Exp3 was present throughout fruit growth and ripening, with highest accumulation in green expanding and maturing fruit, and lower, declining levels during ripening. Exp4 mRNA was present only in green expanding fruit, whereas Exp5 mRNA was present in expanding fruit but had highest levels in full-size maturing green fruit and declined during the early stages of ripening. mRNAs from each of these genes were also detected in leaves, stems and flowers but not in roots. Exp6 and Exp7 mRNAs were present at much lower levels than mRNAs of the other expansin genes, and were detected only in expanding or mature green fruit. The results indicate the presence of a large and complex expansin gene family in tomato, and suggest that while the expression of several expansin genes may contribute to green fruit development, only Exp1 mRNA is present at high levels during fruit ripening.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: abscission ; cell wall ; cellulase ; endo-1,4-β-glucanase ; fruit softening ; Lycopersicon esculentum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Plants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. T5) were transformed with an antisense endo-1,4-β-glucanase (cellulase, EC 3.2.1.4) Cel2 transgene under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in order to suppress mRNA accumulation of Cel2. In two independent transgenic lines, Cel2 mRNA abundance was reduced by 〉95% in ripe fruit pericarp and ca. 80% in fruit abscission zones relative to non-transgenic controls. In both transgenic lines the softening of antisense Cel2 fruit pericarp measured using stress-relaxation analysis was indistinguishable from control fruit. No differences in ethylene evolution were observed between fruit of control and antisense Cel2 genotypes. However, in fruit abscission zones the suppression of Cel2 mRNA accumulation caused a significant (P〈0.001) increase in the force required to cause breakage of the abscission zone at 4 days post breaker, an increase of 27% in one transgenic line and of 46% in the other transgenic line. Thus the Cel2 gene product contributes to cell wall disassembly occurring in cell separation during fruit abscission, but its role, if any, in softening or textural changes occurring in fruit pericarp during ripening was not revealed by suppression of Cel2 gene expression.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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