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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: anticryptococcal activity ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; human serum protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Human serum at 5 to 10% (v/v) in tissue culture medium RPMI-1640, inhibits the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans by 80 to 93%. Serum fractionated on molecular sieve columns (Sephadex G-200) yielded an active protein fraction. This fraction at 100 μg protein/ml inhibited the growth of C. neoformans by 54%. When an active G-200 fraction was applied to a dye affinity column (Affi-Gel Blue) the fraction with inhibitory activity was bound by the column and was eluted with 1.4 M NaCl in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The bound fraction at 62.5 μg protein/ml inhibited C. neoformans growth by 82%. On native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Nu-PAGE) the bound fraction migrated as a major and a minor band. Under the reducing conditions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE the bound fraction yielded 4 prominent bands with MW ranging from 175 kDa to 45 kDa. Purification of the active Sephadex G-200 peak was achieved using an anion exchange column (DEAE-Sephacel). Protein eluted with 0.1 M NaCl had strong anticryptococcal activity (12.5 μg/ml, 79% inhibition), which in SDS-PAGE migrated as a single band with an approximate MW of 85 kDA. This protein appears important in natural host resistance to C. neoformans and polymorphisms or deficiencies may have epidemiologic and diagnostic relevance.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Voriconazole ; C. neoformans var. gattii ; Serum ; C. neoformans var. neoformans ; Fluconazole
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Voriconazole (VCZ), a new wide-spectrum antifungal triazole currently in development, was tested for activity against Cryptococcus neoformans (CN) var. gattii and var. neoformans in RPMI-1640 (RPMI) or RPMI plus human serum. In RPMI VCZ was 10-fold more inhibitory than FCZ for both varieties of CN. In the presence of human serum neither VCZ nor FCZ had enhanced activity against CN var. gattii. By contrast, both VCZ and FCZ had significantly increased activity in the presence of serum against CN var. neoformans. The lack of serum-enhancing activity for VCZ or FCZ against CN var. gattii may reflect the in vivo situation and predict less efficacy in CN var. gattii infections.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 143 (1998), S. 121-125 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: cryptococcus ; human defenses ; update
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, especially in AIDS patients, and is found world-wide. On the other hand, Cryptococcus neoformans var. gatti (CN-g) is restricted to an association with two species of Eucalyptus trees. Alveolar macrophages (AM) constitute the first line of defense to Cryptococcus neoformans and offers some resistance. The inflammatory response to Cryptococcus neoformans with an influx of neutrophils and monocytes affords a second line of defense. Secretion of proinflammatory monokines by human AM is now being defined. The inflammatory phagocytes are efficient in killing Cryptococcus neoformans and offer strong resistance. T and B cell responses to infection, a third line of defense, results in production of lymphokines (IFNg, etc.) and specific antibodies. Enhancement of lymphocyte responses by IL-12 and IL-18 to Cryptococcus neoformans infection appears to be critical. Susceptibility of AIDS patients to Cryptococcus neoformans is associated with low CD4+ T cell counts and likely reduced efficacy of the second line of defense.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; paracoccidioidomycosis ; passage in vitro ; virulence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Stability of virulence in P. brasiliensis isolates was studied with respect to the in vitro culture history and methods used for storage. Virulence in yeast-form P. brasiliensis isolates was tested in a chronic pulmonary murine model of paracoccidioidomycosis where progression of disease was quantitated in terms of colony forming units recoverable from lungs. Four isolates of P. brasiliensis, including recently isolated from patients or experimental animals, caused chronic progressive disease. Two isolates with a history of subculturing showed attenuation by causing resolving but chronic disease. An attenuated isolate became avirulent subsequent to 15 more years of subculturing. These findings suggest that virulence of P. brasiliensis can be attenuated or lost subsequent to cycles of subculturing over long periods. Our data suggest that the use of fresh P. brasiliensis isolates may be needed to provide reproducible virulence for experimental systems.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Human PMN ; H. capsulatum ; fungicidal resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The basis for resistance of yeast form of Histoplasma capsulatum to antifungal activity of human neutrophils was studied. In limiting dilution assays and short term coculture assays human neutrophils were ineffective in killing H. capsulatum whereas Candida albicans was readily killed. By contrast, in a cell free hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase-halide system H. capsulatum was as sensitive to killing as C. albicans. Moreover, lysate of human neutrophils effectively substituted for horse-radish peroxidase in a cell free system for killing H. capsulatum. H. capsulatum elicited significant products of the oxidative burst in human neutrophils as detected by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. However, the response was two-fold less (p〈0.05) than that induced by C. albicans. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed that phagosome-lysosome fusion took place when neutrophils phagocytosed C. albicans or H. capsulatum. Taken together, these findings indicate that, even though H. capsulatum elicits an oxidative burst and phagosome-lysosome fusion within the phagosome, it is capable of evading damage in short term assays.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; Synergy ; Fluconazole ; Macrophages
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The possible synergy between macrophages and fluconazole for antifungal activity against different isolates ofC. albicans was studied. The susceptibility ofC. albicans isolates to fluconazole (FCZ), when incubated in RPMI-1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 10% fresh mouse serum (test medium, TM) was determined by using a quantative culture methodology. Multiplication of isolate Sh27 was strongly inhibited by FCZ, even at 1.0 µg/ml. However, FCZ even at 100 µg/ml was not fungicidal. Resident murine peritoneal macrophages (MP) incubated for 48 h in RPMI-1640+10% FBS (tissue culture medium, TCM), then challenged with Sh27 in TM for 24 h, were fungistatic (20±9%,n=4). Cultured macrophages synergized with FCZ (10 µg/ml) for fungicidal activity when co-cultured with Sh27 in TM for 24 h (46±8%) and for 48 h (74±5%),n=3. Macrophages and FCZ (10 µg/ml) could not synergize for significant killing of a less FCZ-sensitiveC. albicans isolate 94-164. Multiplication of a FCZ-resistant isolate (94–20) was not inhibited by FCZ at 10 µg/ml TM; however, macrophages and FCZ (10 µg/ml) could synergize for fungistatic (64%), but not fungicidal, activity.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: cryptococcus ; fluconazole ; iron ; serum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Anticryptococcal activity of human serum and apotransferrin in RPMI 1640 was studied in vitro. The effects of varying concentrations of FeCl3 on this activity was investigated. Possible synergy of serum and apotransferrin with fluconazole was also measured. The fungistatic activity of human serum, whether lyophilized, stored at 4 °C, fresh frozen or purchased from commercial sources vs. Cryptococcus neoformans was comparable. There was no significant loss of fungistatic activity after freezing and thawing the serum up to 10 times. The fungistatic activity of human serum was similar when tested in different tissue culture media with the exception of Medium 199. The addition of apotransferrin (2.0 or 0.2 mg/ml) to RPMI 1640 had an inhibitory effect on cryptococcal growth. This effect was reversed by 20 μM of FeCl3 at both apotransferrin concentrations. By contrast, addition of FeCl3 to human serum and RPMI 1640 did not reverse inhibition of growth. Fluconazole synergized with the human serum preparations described, but not with pooled commercial serum, for fungicidal activity. Synergistic activity of fluconazole and human serum was not affected by the addition of FeCl3. Apotransferrin did not show any synergistic fungicidal activity with fluconazole.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: H. capsulatum ; Macrophages ; Novel proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract It is known thatHistoplasma capsulatum can resist the intraphagolysosomal environment and multiply inside macrophages. This resistance can be closly related to its pathogenicity. The mechanism of this resistance has been investigated, but it has not been clarified as yet. To learn about the metabolic condition of the yeast-form ofH. capsulatum (isolates G217B and CDC 105) when ingested by macrophages, we investigated protein synthesis by ingestedH. capsulatum with [35S]-methionine labeling. Cycloheximide at 5 to 10 µg/ml was used to preferentially inhibit macrophage uptake of [35S]-methionine without affectingH. capsulatum uptake. Protein synthesis byH. capsulatum in medium alone served as a positive control. The negative control consisted of macrophages with ingested heat-killedH. capsulatum. Analysis of cytosols with SDS-PAGE and fluorography disclosed that, respectively for G217B and CDC 105, ingestedH. capsulatum synthesized 4 and 5 novel proteins, increased the synthesis of 9 and 17 proteins and decreased the synthesis of 9 and 10 constitutive proteins. Ten of these novel or increased proteins were apparently common to both strains. These metabolic changes in ingestedH. capsulatum could reflect its adaptation to the intraphagolysosomal environment of macrophages and its ability to multiply there.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 134 (1996), S. 115-120 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: neutrophils ; fluconazole ; synergy ; candidacidal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The killing of Candida species by human neutrophils in a long-term 24-h assay and possible synergy with fluconazole (FCZ) for killing was investigated. The test medium (TM) consisted of RPMI-1640, penicillin and streptomycin (P/S), and 10% fresh autologous serum. TM alone was highly fungistatic for Candida species compared to TM without serum. When neutrophils were cocultured in TM with Candida species for 24 h the inoculum colony-forming units (CFU) were always significantly reduced (killing) by 58 to 99%. FCZ was tested over a range of 1–500 μg/ml, and though almost always fungistatic itself, it synergized with neutrophils for significantly increased killing of C. albicans (isolate Sh27) (P〈0.01) and C. albicans (isolate 94-20) (P〈0.05). Killing of non-albicans Candida species was so efficient in the absence of FCZ that demonstration of synergy with FCZ was difficult.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fluconazole ; Iron ; Candida albicans ; macrophage ; monocyte-derived
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Human serum, transferrin, and apotransferrin are known to profoundly inhibit the growth of Candida albicans by iron deprivation. On the other hand, iron overload (iron saturated transferrin) is a serious risk factor for candidiasis in newborn and in leukemic patients. We tested the efficacy of fluconazole and the previously demonstrated synergy of fluconazole and effector cells against C. albicans under iron overload conditions where efficacy might be diminished. We confirm that exogenous iron completely reversed the inhibitory effect of human serum and report that the efficacy of fluconazole against C. albicans was not significantly compromised in a 24 h assay system. Although exogenous iron inhibited fungistatic activity of monocyte-derived macrophages, it did not interfere with the synergistic candidacidal activity of fluconazole and monocyte-derived macrophages. In 72 h assays, where fluconazole had candidacidal activity, exogenous iron did not compromise efficacy of fluconazole, and fluconazole activity was often increased. These in vitro results suggest that effectiveness of fluconazole therapy would not be compromised in iron overload situations in vivo.
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