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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary VIP-like immunoreactive material is present in the female reproductive tract, with a distinct pattern of distribution. The highest concentrations of extractable material and immunoreactive nerve fibres were found in the cervix and vagina. In the cervix these fibres were seen below the surface epithelium and around cervical glands as well as in association with blood vessels and smooth muscle bundles. In the vagina the nerve fibres were most abundant in the superficial regions of the lamina propria. Scattered fibres were also present in the rest of the uterus and in the fallopian tubes. Chromatographic evidence indicates that this VIP-like material is of a similar molecular size to that extracted from other organs. Possible roles for VIP in the regulation of myometrial activity and of cervical and vaginal dilation and secretion are proposed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We report here on the detailed distribution of VIP-like immuno-reactivity in the rat brain by a combined immunological approach using immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. VIP-like immunoreactivity was widely distributed. Cell bodies and fibres were noted principally in the cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, suprachiasmatic nucleus and brain stem. In addition dense areas of immunoreactive fibres and terminals were seen in the stria terminalis and its bed nucleus. The fibres appear to form a major VIP-containing pathway which links the amygdaloid complex with the hypothalamus. Although the functional significance of VIP in the brain is unknown, its presence in the amygdala, the hypothalamus and their linking pathway, as well as its pharmacological actions suggest that is may play a role in neuroendocrine regulation and the modulation of hypothalamic function.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A combination of immunocytochemistry at light and electron microscopic levels, direct radioimmunoassay and measurement after gel chromatography have been used to identify and characterise a glucagon-like peptide detected in human foetal stomach. Immunocytochemistry, with region specific antisera, demonstrated that the glucagon-containing cells were indistinguishable from pancreatic A cells. Radioimmunoassay of tissue extracts confirmed the presence of significant quantities of glucagon, mean 21 pmol/g wet weight (range 14–29) in 16–26 week old foetuses, increasing to 41 pmol/g wet weight (range 31–52) in 33–30 week old foetuses and after gel chromatography the peptide was found to elute at the same position as standard porcine glucagon. It is apparent, therefore, that the human foetal fundus contains significant quantities of true pancreatic-type glucagon.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Immunocytochemistry ; radioimmunoassay ; pancreas ; gut hormones ; vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary VIP has powerful stimulatory effects on both endocrine and exocrine pancreas but its localisation within the gland has not been established. In this study, human pancreas was obtained fresh at surgery (eleven) or within four hours of death (seven). The pancreas was also removed from rats (twenty-two). Immunocytochemical staining showed VIP to be present in fine nerve fibres in all areas of the pancreas. Many fibres were seen in the exocrine pancreas, running between the acini, and around ducts and blood vessels. In addition, dense networks of fibres were observed forming meshes around islets and occasional ganglia were found containing immunoreactive cell bodies. In general, there were fewer VIP fibres in the rat pancreas than in the human, but overall distribution was identical. The mean VIP content of whole human pancreatic tissue was 42±10 pmol/g wet weight (38±9 pmol/g in head, 49±6 pmol/g in body and 42±11 pmol/g in tail). Whole rat pancreatic tissue contained 28±7 pmol/g wet weight while preparations of isolated islets were found to contain 374±30 pmol/g. It is possible that the heavy VIP innervation of the islets described here indicates a role in the regulation of islet hormone release.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Antibodies to the central fragments 9–20 dodecapeptide sequence of CCK were used for specific immunostaining of the CCK cells of the mammalian gut. The use of high specific antibodies to synthetic fragment, essential when there is a possibility of immunochemical cross reactions between antisera and hormones of similar molecular structure provides the key to increased understanding of the nature and relationships of peptide hormones.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Antisera to Met-, Leu-enkephalin, VIP and substance P were raised in rabbits and characterised for both radioimmunoassay (Table 1) and immunocytochemistry (Table 2). The carotid bodies and bifurcation of the common carotid arteries were removed from adult cats (n = 25) under pentobarbitone ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We describe here a depletion of peptide containing nerves and cells in Hirschsprung's disease, in comparison with specimens of bowel taken from age-matched neonates with no evidence of chronic constipation. VIP content in the diseased specimens was reduced by almost 80%, from 110 ± 10.6 (mean ± SEM) pmol VIP/g wet weight of tissue in controls to 23.8 ± 3.5 pmol/g in the mid-portion of the diseased specimens. In addition, the numbers of enteroglucagon and somatostatin cells in the mucosa were significantly reduced in the aganglionic portions. Enteroglucagon cells were reduced from 55 ± 7 in controls to 27 ± 2 in proximal portions rising to 44 ± 3 and 49 ± 4 cells/mm2 in middle and distal areas. Somatostatin cell numbers also fell, from 5.5 ± 1.9 to 1.8 ± 0.8, 2.5 ± 0.7 and 3.8 ± 0.9 cells/mm2 in similar areas. Further investigation of the abnormalities of the diffuse neuroendocrine system in Hirschsprung's disease may help in understanding the nature of this condition and provide additional information on the role of these peptides in the control of gut function.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Immunocytochemistry ; Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide ; Radioimmunoassay ; Gut hormones ; Anura
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Immunocytochemical and radioimmunological techniques with region specific antisera have been used to identify a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like material in the anuran intestine. Seven species of Anura were investigated: Bombina bombina, Alytes obstetricans, Rana temporaria, Rana esculenta, Hyla arborea, Hyla crepitans and Bufo bufo. In five of the species (A. obstetricans, R. temporaria, H. arborea, H. crepitans and B. bufo) vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactive mucosal endocrine cells and nerve fibres in all layers of the gut wall, were detected by both immunofluorescence and peroxidase-antiperoxidase methods. In the other two species, R. esculenta and B. bombina, no mucosal endocrine cells were detected although the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive nerve fibres were plentiful. Radioimmunoassay showed the presence of significant amounts of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactivity in intestinal extracts from all species. The highest quantities were present in those anurans with both immunostained cells and nerves. Gel permeation chromatography showed that most of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like peptide eluted in a position identical to that of natural mammalian (porcine) vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. The results indicate that a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like peptide is well represented in the Anura and that it is immunologically very similar to the mammalian peptide.
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