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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Photosynthesis ; Regulation ; Thioredoxin ; Cyanobacterium ; Chromatium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Enzymes that are regulated by the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system in chloroplasts — fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase purified from two different types of photosynthetic prokaryotes (cyanobacteria, purple sulfur bacteria) and tested for a response to thioredoxins. Each of the enzymes from the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum, an oxygenic organism known to contain the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system, was activated by thioredoxins that had been reduced either chemically by dithiothreitol or photochemically by reduced ferredoxin and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase. Like their chloroplast counterparts, N. muscorum FBPase and SBPase were activated preferentially by reduced thioredoxin f. SBPase was also partially activated by thioredoxin m. PRK, which was present in two regulatory forms in N. muscorum, was activated similarly by thioredoxins f and m. Despite sharing the capacity for regulation by thioredoxins, the cyanobacterial FBPase and SBPase target enzymes differed antigenically from their chloroplast counterparts. The corresponding enzymes from Chromatium vinosum, an anoxygenic photosynthetic purple bacterium found recently to contain the NADP/thioredoxin sytem, differed from both those of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts in showing no response to reduced thioredoxin. Instead, C. vinosum FBPase, SBPase, and PRK activities were regulated by a metabolite effector, 5′-AMP. The evidence is in accord with the conclusion that thioredoxins function in regulating the reductive pentose phosphate cycle in oxygenic prokaryotes (cyanobacteria) that contain the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system, but not in anoxygenic prokaryotes (photosynthetic purple bacteria) that contain the NADP/thioredoxin system. In organisms of the latter type, enzyme effectors seem to play a dominant role in regulating photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) ; Hordein promoters ; Tissue-specific expression ; Transgene inheritance ; Transgene expression stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hordeins are alcohol-soluble redundant storage proteins that accumulate in protein bodies of the starchy endosperm during seed development. Strong endosperm-specific β-glucuronidase gene-(uidA; gus) expression driven by B1- and D-hordein promoters was observed in stably transformed barley plants co-transformed with the selectable herbicide resistance gene, bar. PCR analysis using DNA from calli of 22 different lines transformed with B1- or D-hordein promoter-uidA fusions showed the expected 1.8-kb uidA fragment after PCR amplification. DNA-blot analysis of genomic DNA from T0 leaf tissue of 13 lines showed that 12 (11 independent) lines produced uidA fragments and that one line was uidA-negative. T1 progeny from 6 out of 12 independent regenerable transgenic lines tested for uidA expression showed a 3 : 1 segregation pattern. Of the remaining six transgenic lines, one showed a segregation ratio of 15 : 1 for GUS, one expressed bar alone, one lacked transmission of either gene to T1 progeny, and three were sterile. Stable GUS expression driven by the hordein promoters was observed in T5 progeny in one line, T4 progeny in one line, T3 progeny in three lines and T2 or T1 progeny in the remaining two fertile lines tested; homozygous transgenic plants were obtained from three lines. In the homozygous lines the expression of the GUS protein, driven by either the B1- or D-hordein promoters, was highly expressed in endosperm at early to mid-maturation stages. Expression of bar driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter was also stably transmitted to T1 progeny in seven out of eight lines tested. However, in most lines PAT expression driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter was gradually lost in T2 or later generations; one homozygous line was obtained. In contrast, six out of seven lines stably expressed GUS driven by the hordein promoters in T2 or later generations. We conclude that the B1- and D-hordein promoters can be used to engineer, and subsequently study, stable endosperm-specific gene expression in barley and potentially to modify barley seeds through genetic engineering.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Photosynthetic bacteria ; Carbon isotope ratio ; CO2 fixation ; Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum ; Rhodospirillum rubrum ; Chlamydomonas reinhardii ; Chromatium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 1. The carbon isotope discrimination properties of a representative of each of the three types of photosynthetic bacteria Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum, Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chromatium and of the C3-alga Chlamydomonas reinhardii were determined by measuring the ratio of 13CO2 to 12CO2 incorporated during photoautotrophic growth. 2. Chromatium and R. rubrum had isotope selection properties similar to those of C3-plants, whereas Chlorobium was significantly different. 3. The results suggest that Chromatium and R. rubrum assimilate CO2 mainly via ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase and the associated reactions of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle, whereas Chlorobium utilizes other mechanisms. Such mechanisms would include the ferredoxin-linked carboxylation enzymes and associated reactions of the reductive carboxylic acid cycle.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Thioredoxin ; Cyanobacterium ; Ferredoxin ; Nostoc ; Regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cell-free preparations of the cyanobacterium (bluegreen alga) Nostoc muscorum were assayed for thioredoxins and enzymes catalyzing the ferredoxin and NADP-linked reduction of thioredoxin. Nostoc was found to have two different thioredoxins: one of approximate molecular weight 16,000 (designated Nostoc thioredoxin f) that selectively activated chloroplast fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and another of approximate molecular weight 9,000 (designated Nostoc thioredoxin m) that selcetively activated chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase. The two thioredoxins could be reduced either chemically with dithiothreitol or photochemically with ferredoxin and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase which, like the recently found regulatory iron-sulfur protein ferralterin, was present in Nostoc cells. Nostoc ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase appeared to be similar to its chloroplast counterpart in enzyme specificity, molecular weight, and spectral properties. The Nostoc and spinach chloroplast ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductases as well as their thioredoxins, ferredoxins, and chlorophyll containing membranes were interchangeable in activating chloroplast fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase. There was no evidence for an NADP-linked thioredoxin reductase such as that of E. coli. The results are in accord with the conclusion that the cyanobacteria resemble higher plants in having a functional ferredoxin/thioredoxin system rather than an NADP/thioredoxin system typical of other bacteria.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1520-510X
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKL) potently stimulates interferon (IFN)-γ production in CD4 T-lymphocytes, and when used as adjuvant for immunotherapy, reduces immunoglobulin (Ig)E production and reverses established allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in a murine model of asthma. We asked if such treatment could decrease established peanut-induced anaphylaxis or cow's milk-induced food allergy in highly food-allergic dogs.Methods:  We therefore studied four 4-year-old atopic colony dogs extremely allergic to peanut (Group I), as well as five 7-year-old dogs very allergic to wheat, milk and other foods (Group II). All dogs experienced marked allergic symptoms, including vomiting and diarrhea on oral challenge with the relevant foods. The dogs were then vaccinated once subcutaneously with peanut or milk and wheat with HKL emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant.Results:  Following vaccination of the allergic dogs with HKL and allergen, oral challenges with peanut (Group I) or milk (Group II) elicited only minor or no symptoms. In addition, skin test end-point titrations showed marked reductions for 〉10 weeks after treatment, and levels of Ara h 1-specific IgE in serum of peanut sensitive dogs, as demonstrated by immunoblotting, were greatly reduced by treatment with HKL plus peanut allergen.Conclusions:  Thus, HKL plus allergen treatment markedly improved established food allergic responses in dogs, suggesting that such an immunotherapy strategy in humans might greatly improve individuals with food allergy and anaphylaxis.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5079
    Keywords: fructose-2,6-bisphosphate ; PFK ; PFP ; Chlorella ; green algae ; carbon metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cell-free preparations from the green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, contained two forms of phosphofructokinase (PFK), designated PFK I and PFK II. This represents the first evidence for a second form of PFK in green algae. A pyrophosphate D-fructose-6-phosphate, 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) activity, that was unaffected by the regulatory metabolite, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, co-purified with PFK II through several steps. The data suggest that Chlorella pyrenoidosa resembles higher plants in containing two forms of PFK, but differs in containing an atypical form of PFP.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Plant Physiology 31 (1980), S. 341-374 
    ISSN: 0066-4294
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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