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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; BLOOD ; Germany ; human ; DISEASE ; ENZYMES ; GENOME ; RNA ; LINES ; RESPONSES ; INFECTION ; MECHANISM ; INDUCTION ; ANTIGEN ; ANTIGENS ; CELL-LINES ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; SIGNAL ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; virus ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; REPLICATION ; INTERFERON ; KINETICS ; sensitivity ; ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY ; DOUBLE-STRANDED-RNA ; BEHAVIOR ; FLUORESCENCE ; cell lines ; TUMOR CELLS ; INCREASED EXPRESSION ; RE ; INCREASE ; oncolytic virus ; ENZYME ; TUMOR-CELL ; antiviral ; ANTITUMOR VACCINATION ; antiviral proteins ; HUMAN CELL LINES ; interferon alpha ; paramyxovirus ; PROTEIN-KINASE PKR ; TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL ; virus infection
    Abstract: To investigate tumor-selective viral replication, we compared several tumorigenic human cell lines to nontumorigenic human cells from the blood for the sensitivity to become infected by a recombinant lentogenic strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) with incorporated transgene EGFP (NDFL-EGFP). Although fluorescence signals in nontumorigenic cells were only weak or missing completely, a massive and long-lasting transgene-expression was observed in all tumor cell lines. The majority of tumor cells (50-95%) could be infected, and viral replication was associated with an increase in the cell surface density of viral antigens. To clarify the underlying mechanism of the observed difference in virus susceptibility we examined the kinetics of interferon-induced antiviral enzymes because NDV is a strong type-I interferon inducer. This analysis revealed several defects of tumor cells in their antiviral defence responses: They showed no response to UV-inactivated NDV, whereas nontumorigenic cells reacted with induction of high-levels of the antiviral enzymes PKR and MxA. Upon coincubation with live NDV, tumor cells showed a delayed response in the increased expression of the antiviral enzymes in comparison with PBMC. In nontumorigenic cells the replication cycle of NDV stopped after the production of positive-strand RNA, while tumor cells continued in the replication cycle and copied viral genomes 10-50 hr after infection. These results can explain the tumor selective replication behavior of this interesting antineoplastic virus. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16470838
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; BLOOD ; carcinoma ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; THERAPY ; DISEASE ; PATIENT ; IFN-GAMMA ; ANTIGEN ; T cells ; T-CELLS ; bone marrow ; BONE-MARROW ; BREAST-CANCER ; CANCER-CELLS ; antigen presentation ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; pancreatic cancer ; pancreatic carcinoma ; INTERFERON-GAMMA ; CYTOKINE ; RE ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; pancreatic ; TUMOR-CELL ; T helper cell ; HLA-A ; BONE ; peripheral blood ; ANTIGEN EXPRESSION ; B-ANTIGEN ; tumor-specific T cells
    Abstract: Pancreatic carcinoma is a very aggressive disease and little is known about its immunobiology. We here describe the presence in pancreatic cancer patients of spontaneously induced functional CD4 and CD8 memory/effector T cells reactive to autologous tumor cells or to the pancreatic cancer associated antigen, MUC-1. Such specific cells were present in the bone marrow or peripheral blood of most of the 23 tested patients. Low dose stimulation of primary cultures of pancreatic cancer cells with 500 IU/ml IFN-gamma for 72 h enhanced HLA-I expression and induced the de novo expression of HLA-II molecules. This led to a much better immune recognition by autologous HLA-I restricted and purified CD8 T cells and allowed tumor cell recognition by HLA-II restricted purified CD4 T-helper cells. Thus, interferon-gamma appears to be a useful adjuvant cytokine to enhance the immunogenicity of a patients' tumor cells and their recognition by tumor reactive immune cells
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16685444
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  • 3
    Keywords: brain ; CANCER ; CELLS ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; LUNG-CANCER ; SYSTEM ; DISEASE ; PROTEIN ; TISSUE ; MICE ; PATIENT ; ANTIGEN ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; BONE-MARROW ; MEMORY ; RECOGNITION ; MOUSE ; IDENTIFICATION ; LYMPHOMA ; EFFICACY ; MELANOMA ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; HEAD ; NECK ; EPITOPE ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; IMMUNOGENICITY ; CANCER PATIENTS ; CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS ; TUMOR-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS ; NECK-CANCER ; brain tumor ; head and neck cancer ; endothelial cells ; proteome ; EGFR ; SEPARATION ; EXPRESSION PROFILES ; Type ; HEAD-AND-NECK
    Abstract: Identifying the antigens that have the potential to trigger endogenous antitumor responses in an individual cancer patient is likely to enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, but current methodologies do not efficiently identify such antigens. This study describes what we believe to be a new method of comprehensively identifying candidate tissue antigens that spontaneously cause T cell responses in disease situations. We used the newly developed automated, two-dimensional chromatography system PF2D to fractionate the proteome of human tumor tissues and tested protein fractions for recognition by preexisting tumor-specific CD4(+) Th cells and CTLs. Applying this method using mice transgenic for a TCR that recognizes an OVA peptide presented by MHC class I, we demonstrated efficient separation, processing, and cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells by DCs of OVA expressed by the OVA-transfected mouse lymphoma RMA-OVA. Applying this method to human tumor tissues, we identified MUC1 and EGFR as tumor-associated antigens selectively recognized by T cells in patients with head and neck cancer. Finally, in an exemplary patient with a malignant brain tumor, we detected CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses against two novel antigens, transthyretin and calgranulin B/S100A9, which were expressed in tumor and endothelial cells. The immunogenicity of these antigens was confirmed in 4 of 10 other brain tumor patients. This fast and inexpensive method therefore appears suitable for identifying candidate T cell antigens in various disease situations, such as autoimmune and malignant diseases, without being restricted to expression by a certain cell type or HLA allele
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20458140
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  • 4
    Keywords: PEPTIDE ; CELLS ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; BLOOD ; Germany ; THERAPY ; GENERATION ; LINES ; MICE ; PATIENT ; RESPONSES ; IFN-GAMMA ; ENRICHMENT ; ANTIGEN ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; T-CELLS ; CELL-LINES ; FREQUENCY ; bone marrow ; BONE-MARROW ; MALIGNANCIES ; LINE ; LYMPHOCYTES ; EPITOPES ; INTERFERON ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; HEALTHY ; cell lines ; HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES ; CTL ; INTERFERON-GAMMA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; CYTOTOXICITY ; multiple myeloma ; MALIGNANCY ; RE ; secretion ; BM ; memory T cells
    Abstract: Multiple myeloma (MM) is one of the most common hematologic malignancies. Despite extensive therapeutical approaches, cures remain rare exceptions. An important issue for future immunologic treatments is the characterization of appropriate tumor-associated antigens. Recently, a highly glycosylated mucin MUC1 was detected on a majority of multiple myeloma cell lines. We analyzed bone marrow and peripheral blood of 68 patients with HLA-A2-positive myeloma for the presence and functional activity of CD8 T cells specific for the MUC1-derived peptide LLLLTVLTV. Forty-four percent of the patients with MM contained elevated frequencies of MUC1-specific CD8 T cells in freshly isolated samples from peripheral blood (PB) or bone marrow (BM) compared with corresponding samples from healthy donors. BM-residing T cells possessed a higher functional capacity upon specific reactivation than PB-derived T cells with regard to interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion, perforin production, and cytotoxicity. (C) 2005 by The American Society of Hematology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15561890
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  • 5
    Keywords: carcinoma ; DIFFERENTIATION ; RESPONSES ; LYMPHOCYTES ; CD8(+) ; ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY ; INFILTRATION ; METASTATIC MELANOMA PATIENTS ; EFFECTOR FUNCTIONS ; CENTRAL MEMORY
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The bone marrow (BM) of breast cancer patients harbors tumor-reactive memory T cells (TCs) with therapeutic potential. We recently described the immunologic effects of adoptive transfer of ex vivo restimulated tumor-reactive memory TCs from the BM of 12 metastasized breast cancer patients in a clinical phase-I study. In this trial, adoptive T cell transfer resulted in the occurrence of circulating tumor antigen-reactive type-1 TCs. We here describe the long-term clinical outcome and its correlation with tumor-specific cellular immune response in 16 metastasized breast cancer patients, including 12 included in the original study. METHODS: Sixteen metastatic breast cancer patients with preexisting tumor-reactive BM memory TCs were included into the study. The study protocol involved one transfusion of TCs which were reactivated in vitro with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with lysates of MCF-7 breast cancer cells as source of tumor antigens. The presence of tumor-reactive memory TCs was analyzed by IFN-gamma ELISpot assays. RESULTS: Tumor-reactive memory TCs in the peripheral blood were induced de novo in 7/16 patients (44 %) after adoptive TC transfer. These patients were considered immunologic responders to the therapy. Positive adoptive immunotherapy (ADI) response was observed significantly more often in patients without bone metastases (p = 0.0051), in patients with high levels of tumor-reactive BM TCs prior to therapy (p = 0.036) and correlated significantly with the estimated numbers of transferred tumor-reactive TCs (p = 0.0021). After the treatment, we observed an overall median survival of 33.8 months in the total cohort with three patients alive at last follow-up and more than 7 years after ADI. Numbers of transferred tumor-reactive TCs correlated significantly with the overall survival of patients (p = 0.017). Patients with an immunologic response to ADI in the peripheral blood had a significantly longer median survival than nonresponders (median survival 58.6 vs. 13.6 months; p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: In metastasized breast cancer patients, adoptive transfer of BM TCs can induce the presence of tumor antigen-reactive type-1 TCs in the peripheral blood. Patients with immunologic response after ADI show a significantly longer overall survival. Patients with bone metastases significantly less frequently respond to the treatment and, therefore, might not be optimal candidates for ADI. Although the present study does not yet prove the therapeutic effect of ADI, these findings shed light on the relation between immune response and cancer prognosis and suggest that transfer of reactivated BM TCs might bear therapeutic potential.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23595207
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  • 6
    Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumor and still remains incurable. Among others, an immature subpopulation of self-renewing and therapy-resistant tumor cells-often referred to as glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs)-has been shown to contribute to disease recurrence. To target these cells personalized immunotherapy has gained a lot of interest, e.g. by reactivating pre-existing anti-tumor immune responses against GSC antigens. To identify T cell targets commonly presented by GSCs and their differentiated counterpart, we used a proteomics-based separation of GSC proteins in combination with a T cell activation assay. Altogether, 713 proteins were identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry. After a thorough filtering process, 32 proteins were chosen for further analyses. Immunogenicity of corresponding peptides was tested ex vivo. A considerable number of these antigens induced T cell responses in GBM patients but not in healthy donors. Moreover, most of them were overexpressed in primary GBM and also highly expressed in recurrent GBM tissues. Interestingly, expression of the most frequent T cell target antigens could also be confirmed in quiescent, slow-cycling GSCs isolated in high purity by the DEPArray technology. Finally, for a subset of these T cell target antigens, an association between expression levels and higher T cell infiltration as well as an increased expression of positive immune modulators was observed. In summary, we identified novel immunogenic proteins, which frequently induce tumor-specific T cell responses in GBM patients and were also detected in vitro in therapy-resistant quiescent, slow-cycling GSCs. Stable expression of these T cell targets in primary and recurrent GBM support their suitability for future clinical use.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28332095
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  • 7
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint therapy has dramatically changed treatment options in patients with metastatic melanoma. However, a relevant part of patients still does not respond to treatment. Data regarding the prognostic or predictive significance of preexisting immune responses against tumour antigens are conflicting. Retrospective data suggested a higher clinical benefit of ipilimumab in melanoma patients with preexisting NY-ESO-1-specific immunity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with previously untreated or treated metastatic melanoma and preexisting humoural immune response against NY-ESO-1 received ipilimumab at a dose of 10 mg/kg in week 1, 4, 7, 10 followed by 3-month maintenance treatment for a maximum of 48 weeks. Primary endpoint was the disease control rate (irCR, irPR or irSD) according to immune-related response criteria (irRC). Secondary endpoints included the disease control rate according to RECIST criteria, progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). Humoural and cellular immune responses against NY-ESO-1 were analysed from blood samples. RESULTS: Disease control rate according to irRC was 52%, irPR was observed in 36% of patients. Progression-free survival according to irRC was 7.8 months, according to RECIST criteria it was 2.9 months. Median OS was 22.7 months; the corresponding 1-year survival rate was 66.8%. Treatment-related grade 3 AEs occurred in 36% with no grade 4-5 AEs. No clear association was found between the presence of NY-ESO-1-specific cellular or humoural immune responses and clinical activity. CONCLUSION: Ipilimumab demonstrated clinically relevant activity within this biomarker-defined population. NY-ESO-1 positivity, as a surrogate for a preexisting immune response against tumour antigens, might help identifying patients with a superior outcome from immune checkpoint blockade. CLINICAL TRIAL INFORMATION: NCT01216696.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29306769
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  • 8
    Keywords: ANGIOGENESIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; SURVIVAL ; TUMOR-CELLS ; carcinoma ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; VITRO ; CLONING ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; PROTEIN ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; LINES ; MICE ; PATIENT ; prognosis ; CONTRAST ; IN-SITU ; immunohistochemistry ; METASTASIS ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; HEAD ; CARCINOMAS ; INVOLVEMENT ; NECK ; squamous cell carcinoma ; RECURRENT ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; NECK CANCERS ; CLUSTER ; RE ; TUMOR INVASION ; TUMOR-GROWTH ; overall survival ; HNSCC ; cell cluster ; MAMMALIAN HEPARANASE
    Abstract: Purpose: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are characterized by a poor prognosis due to aggressive, recurrent tumor growth. Expression of the extracellular matrix-degrading enzyme heparanase was associated with poorer prognosis in several cancers. We analyzed the presence of heparanase in HNSCC tissues and tumor cells and its potential prognostic significance. Experimental Design: We analyzed the expression of the active form of heparanase in HNSCC tissues in corresponding tumor cell cultures and after xenotransplantation of tumor cell cultures into NOD/Scid mice by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-PCR in altogether 25 patients and did a comparison with clinicopathologic data of the patients. Results: Heparanase expression in situ was detected in all tumor biopsies in the tumor stroma and in tumor cells from 13 of 19 primary tumors and 9 of 12 lymph node metastases. Heparanase was localized in disseminated tumor cells, in tumor cell clusters invading adjacent stromal tissues, and in tumor cells at the tumor invasion front. Lymph node metastases expressed higher levels of heparanase compared with corresponding primary tumors. In contrast to a heterogeneous expression pattern in tumor tissues, all corresponding HNSCC tumor cell cultures showed a rather homogeneous heparanase expression on the mRNA and protein levels. Comparison of heparanase expression in situ and in corresponding tumor cell cultures in vitro or after xenotransplantation into NOD/Scid mice revealed that heparanase expression was regulated in vivo. Lack of heparanase in tumor cells from primary tumors or lymph node metastases was correlated with prolonged disease-free survival and overall survival. Conclusion: Heparanase expression seems to be involved in the invasiveness and aggressiveness of HNSCC
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15837740
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; BLOOD ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; VITRO ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; SITE ; MICE ; PATIENT ; RESPONSES ; IFN-GAMMA ; INDUCTION ; ENRICHMENT ; ANTIGEN ; ANTIGENS ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; FREQUENCY ; bone marrow ; BONE-MARROW ; cytokines ; IMMUNE-RESPONSES ; MEMORY ; tumor antigens ; resistance ; NUMBER ; LOCALIZATION ; STRATEGIES ; IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; CANCER PATIENTS ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; pancreatic cancer ; immunosuppression ; chronic pancreatitis ; SERUM ; PROGRAM ; RE ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; TUMOR-ANTIGENS ; FAS LIGAND ; tumor-antigen ; tumor antigen ; memory T cells ; MEDIATED RECOGNITION ; MUC1
    Abstract: Pancreatic cancer is characterized by aggressive growth and treatment resistance. New approaches include immunotherapeutic strategies but the type and extent of spontaneous immune responses against tumor antigens remains unclear. A dominance of TH2 cytokines in patients' sera reported previously suggests systemic tumor-induced immunosuppression, potentially inhibiting the induction of tumor-reactive T cells. We characterized the localization, frequencies, and functional potential of spontaneously induced memory T cells specific for individual tumor antigens or the tumor-associated antigen mucin-1 in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of 41 pancreatic cancer patients. We found high numbers of tumor-reactive T cells in all bone marrow samples and in 50% of the blood samples. These cells secreted the TH1 cytokine IFN-gamma rather than TH2 cytokines upon stimulation with tumor antigens. Although consistently induced during pancreatic cancer, T cells specific for pancreatic antigens were not detected during chronic pancreatitis, suggesting that their evaluation may be of diagnostic use in both diseases. Freshly isolated T cells from cancer patients recognized autologous tumor cells and rejected them in vitro and in a xenotransplant model in vivo, suggesting their therapeutic potential. Thus, tumor antigen-specific T cell responses occur regularly during pancreatic cancer disease and lead to enrichment of tumor cell-reactive memory T cells in the bone marrow. The bone marrow can therefore be considered an important organ for antitumor immune responses in pancreatic cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16267034
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  • 10
    Keywords: CELLS ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; BLOOD ; Germany ; DISEASE ; PATIENT ; RESPONSES ; IFN-GAMMA ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; T cells ; T-CELLS ; treatment ; ASSOCIATION ; bone marrow ; BONE-MARROW ; BREAST-CANCER ; STAGE ; MELANOMA ; Jun ; MALIGNANT-MELANOMA ; CANCER PATIENTS ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; HIGH-FREQUENCIES ; BONE ; peripheral blood ; stage III
    Abstract: Using IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot, we investigated reactivity of T cells from bone marrow and peripheral blood to melanoma lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cells in 40 melanoma patients. Melanoma-reactive T cells were present in the bone marrow of seven patients and in peripheral blood of four patients. In the bone marrow, melanoma-reactive T cells were present in 6 of 21 stage IV patients and in I of 10 stage III patients, whereas none were detected in stage I to II patients (0 of 9). The occurrence of tumor-reactive bone marrow T cells in melanoma patients was associated with advanced disease stage, disease duration and tumor load, and independent of treatment. These findings provide new insights into the generation of T-cell responses in melanoma patients
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16778169
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