Intensive care unit
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Objective To assess and compare the impact of overnight sedation with midazolam or propofol on anxiety and depression levels, as well as sleep quality, in non-intubated patients in intensive care. Design Open, comparative, prospective, randomised study. Setting Surgical intensive care unit (ICU) in a university hospital. Patients 40 conscious patients expected to stay in the ICU for at least 5 days who were admitted following trauma or elective orthopaedic, thopaedic, thoracic or abdominal surgery. Measurements and results Evaluation of a self-assessment scale (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HAD) on the day following the 1st, 3rd and 5th night of sedation with either midazolam or propofol. Heart rate, pulse oximetry and blood gases were monitored. Eight patients were excluded from the analysis. The level of anxiety was severe (HAD〉10) in 31% of the patients receiving midazolam and in 26% (p=0.1) receiving propofol after the first night of sedation, with no significant improvement over the next few days. The levels of depression remained high (〉10) in 54% of patients receiving midazolam, and in 16% of the patients receiving propofol (p=0.15). Sleep quality tended to improve during the study in the two groups. Conclusions These data show that half of the patients in the ICU experienced high levels of anxiety and depression during the first 5 postoperative or post-trauma days in the ICU. The beneficial effects of sedation on sleep quality were comparable for midazolam and propofol, regardless of a lack of improvement in anxiety and depression. However, an improved quality of sleep could help to re-establish a physiological night and day rhythm.
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