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  • 1
    Keywords: THERAPY ; PATIENT ; TRIALS ; AGE ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; REQUIRING PROLONGED OBSERVATION ; RECALL ; COLLABORATIVE REANALYSIS ; SEX-HORMONES
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected women. METHODS: Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche and menopause for breast cancer overall, and by tumour histology and by oestrogen receptor expression. FINDINGS: Breast cancer risk increased by a factor of 1.050 (95% CI 1.044-1.057; p〈0.0001) for every year younger at menarche, and independently by a smaller amount (1.029, 1.025-1.032; p〈0.0001), for every year older at menopause. Premenopausal women had a greater risk of breast cancer than postmenopausal women of an identical age (RR at age 45-54 years 1.43, 1.33-1.52, p〈0.001). All three of these associations were attenuated by increasing adiposity among postmenopausal women, but did not vary materially by women's year of birth, ethnic origin, childbearing history, smoking, alcohol consumption, or hormonal contraceptive use. All three associations were stronger for lobular than for ductal tumours (p〈0.006 for each comparison). The effect of menopause in women of an identical age and trends by age at menopause were stronger for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease (p〈0.01 for both comparisons). INTERPRETATION: The effects of menarche and menopause on breast cancer risk might not be acting merely by lengthening women's total number of reproductive years. Endogenous ovarian hormones are more relevant for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease and for lobular than for ductal tumours. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23084519
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  • 2
    Keywords: THERAPY ; HEALTH ; WOMEN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies. Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. FINDINGS: During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with 〈5 years of use (RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.31-1.56; p〈0.0001). Combining current-or-recent use (any duration, but stopped 〈5 years before diagnosis) resulted in an RR of 1.37 (95% CI 1.29-1.46; p〈0.0001); this risk was similar in European and American prospective studies and for oestrogen-only and oestrogen-progestagen preparations, but differed across the four main tumour types (heterogeneity p〈0.0001), being definitely increased only for the two most common types, serous (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.40-1.66; p〈0.0001) and endometrioid (1.42, 1.20-1.67; p〈0.0001). Risk declined the longer ago use had ceased, although about 10 years after stopping long-duration hormone therapy use there was still an excess of serous or endometrioid tumours (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.46, p=0.005). INTERPRETATION: The increased risk may well be largely or wholly causal; if it is, women who use hormone therapy for 5 years from around age 50 years have about one extra ovarian cancer per 1000 users and, if its prognosis is typical, about one extra ovarian cancer death per 1700 users. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25684585
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; DIAGNOSIS ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; RISK ; RISKS ; RISK-FACTORS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; NO ; NUMBER ; AGE ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; UNITED-STATES ; RELATIVE RISK ; HETEROGENEITY ; YOUNG-WOMEN ; CHINESE-WOMEN ; interpretation ; LEGAL-ABORTION ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVE USE ; REANALYSIS ; RECORD ; REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS ; REQUIRING PROLONGED OBSERVATION ; WORLDWIDE
    Abstract: Background The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer has brought together the worldwide epidemiological evidence on the possible relation between breast cancer and previous spontaneous and induced abortions. Methods Data on individual women from 53 studies undertaken in 16 countries with liberal abortion laws were checked and analysed centrally. Relative risks of breast cancer-comparing the effects of having had a pregnancy that ended as an abortion with those of never having had that pregnancy-were calculated, stratified by study, age at diagnosis, parity, and age at first birth. Because the extent of under-reporting of past induced abortions might be influenced by whether or not women had been diagnosed with breast cancer, results of the studies-including a total of 44 000 women with breast cancer-that used prospective information on abortion (ie, information that had been recorded before the diagnosis of breast cancer) were considered separately from results of the studies-including 39 000 women with the disease-that used retrospective information (recorded after the diagnosis of breast cancer). Findings The overall relative risk of breast cancer, comparing women with a prospective record of having had one or more pregnancies that ended as a spontaneous abortion versus women with no such record, was 0.98 (95% Cl 0.92-1-04, p=0.5). The corresponding relative risk for induced abortion was 0.93 (0.89-0.96, p=0.0002). Among women with a prospective record of having had a spontaneous or an induced abortion, the risk of breast cancer did not differ significantly according to the number or timing of either type of abortion. Published results on induced abortion from the few studies with prospectively recorded information that were not available for inclusion here are consistent with these findings. Overall results for induced abortion differed substantially between studies with prospective and those with retrospective information on abortion (test for heterogeneity between relative risks: chi(1)(2),=33.1, p〈0.0001). Interpretation Pregnancies that end as a spontaneous or induced abortion do not increase a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. Collectively, the studies of breast cancer with retrospective recording of induced abortion yielded misleading results, possibly because women who had developed breast cancer were, on average, more likely than other women to disclose previous induced abortions
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15051280
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; THERAPY ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; incidence ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; DESIGN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; smoking ; cancer risk ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CONSUMPTION ; BIRTH COHORT ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; MASS INDEX ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVE USE ; REQUIRING PROLONGED OBSERVATION ; METAANALYSIS ; HORMONAL FACTORS ; ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES ; EPITHELIAL OVARIAN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished, and describe these relationships. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Individual data on 25,157 women with ovarian cancer and 81,311 women without ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies were collected, checked, and analysed centrally. Adjusted relative risks of ovarian cancer were calculated, by height and by body mass index. Ovarian cancer risk increased significantly with height and with body mass index, except in studies using hospital controls. For other study designs, the relative risk of ovarian cancer per 5 cm increase in height was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.09; p〈0.001); this relationship did not vary significantly by women's age, year of birth, education, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having had a hysterectomy, having first degree relatives with ovarian or breast cancer, use of oral contraceptives, or use of menopausal hormone therapy. For body mass index, there was significant heterogeneity (p〈0.001) in the findings between ever-users and never-users of menopausal hormone therapy, but not by the 11 other factors listed above. The relative risk for ovarian cancer per 5 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.07-1.13; p〈0.001) in never-users and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.92-0.99; p = 0.02) in ever-users of hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian cancer is associated with height and, among never-users of hormone therapy, with body mass index. In high-income countries, both height and body mass index have been increasing in birth cohorts now developing the disease. If all other relevant factors had remained constant, then these increases in height and weight would be associated with a 3% increase in ovarian cancer incidence per decade. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22606070
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Key words Low back pain ; Children ; Clinical examination ; Questionnaire ; Prevalence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A study was undertaken to analyse the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and confounding factors in primary school children in the city of Antwerp. A total of 392 children aged 9 were included in the study. All children completed a validated three-page questionnaire and they all underwent a specific lumbar spine oriented medical examination during their annual routine medical school control. This examination was performed by the city school doctors. The questionnaire was composed of easy “yes/no” questions and visual analogue scales. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test and chi-squared test at the significance level P 〈 0.05. The prevalence of LBP was high. No gender difference was found. A total of 142 children (36%) reported having suffered at least one episode of LBP in their lives. Of these, 33 (23%) had sought medical help for LBP from a doctor or physiotherapist. Sixty-four percent of children reporting LBP said that at least one of their parents suffered from or complained of LBP. This was significantly higher than for the children who did not report having suffered LBP. The way in which the school satchel was carried (in the hand, on the back) had no bearing on the incidence of LBP. There was significantly more LBP in children who reported playing video games for more than 2 h per day, but this was not so for television watchers. The visual analogue scales concerning general well-being were all very significantly correlated with self-reported LBP, with children who reported LBP being more tired, less happy, and worse sleepers. Of the 19 clinical parameters taken down during the medical examination, only one was significantly more prevalent in the group of children reporting LBP: pain on palpation at the insertion site on the iliac crest of the ilio-lumbar ligament. From this study we can establish that there are few clinical signs that can help to single out school children with LBP.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract When uniformly carbon-14-labeled hempa, alone or in combination with busulfan, is ingested by the adult boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) during a six-day feeding period, hempa is metabolized rapidly and excreted with its decomposition products. The primary metabolic pathway involves the sequentialN-demethylation of hempa to the inactive penta-, tetra-, and trimethyl derivatives. Radiocarbon liberated during metabolism is expired as14CO2 or is incorporated into natural constituents. Of the radioactive products that are present in adult boll weevils immediately upon transfer from the hempa-containing diet, only 0.6 µg each is in the form of hempa; after 24 hours of feeding on untreated diet, this is reduced to 0.06 µg. In view of the known low acute- and chronic toxicity of hempa to mammals and its low mutagenicity in mammalian systems, it is concluded that the proposed release of 100 chemosterilized weevils per acre would produce only negligible potential environmental contamination and that possible risks could be further reduced by releasing the insects 24 hours or more after treatment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract When the rate of movement and the persistence of aldicarb in 4 types of soils were investigated in laboratory and field studies some leaching was detected in coarse sand; however, leaching was quite limited in clay loam and muck soils. These data indicated that aldicarb degraded quite rapidly in the selected soils and most of the applied radioactivity volatilized from these soil columns as14CO2. The evolution of14CO2 from the treated soil suggested severe degradation of the aldicarb molecule and consequently provided indirect evidence against the accumulation of significant quantities of toxic metabolites in the soil types evaluated. Under field conditions this toxicant appeared to have a half-life of about 7 days in loam soil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Bei Imagines vonAnthonomus grandis Boheman die kontinuierlich mit nahezu letaler und letaler Dosis phosphororganischer Insektizide gefüttert wurden, konnte eine befristete zunehmende Hemmung der Cholinesteraseaktivität beobachtet werden. Trotzdem die Behandlung nicht unterbrochen wurde, gewann das Enzym die fast normale Wirksamkeit wieder zurück.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The biological properties of a novel compound 353C with high activity againstTrypanosoma cruzi, are described. The compound was about 10 times and 20 times more effective than either benznidazole or nifurtimox respectively, in producing radical cure in mice. 353C had a long half-life and showed anti-trypanosomal properties when given to mice at weekly intervals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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