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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: digoxin ; food ingestion ; ECG ; healthy volunteers ; haemodynamic effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of the ingestion of food and digoxin on the cardiovascular system alone and in combination have been observed in eight healthy subjects. A positive inotropic response was seen following food (2.5 MJ) and intravenous digoxin (0.01 mg/kg) with significant decreases in QS2Index (QS2I) pre-ejection period (PEP) and PEP/LVET (LVET — left ventricular ejection time). These responses were potentiated when food and digoxin were combined. Opposing effects of food and digoxin on % diastole (%D) and diastolic time were observed, food decreasing %D and DT while digoxin increased these variables. Both food and digoxin decreased T-wave amplitude, and digoxin alone or in combination with food decreased QTc. The positive inotropic effect of a 2.5 MJ mixed meal and a loading dose of digoxin in healthy subjects are of similar degree, different mechanism, and are potentiated in combination.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: amiodarone ; antiarrhythmic drug ; QT interval ; blood level monitoring
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have studied 27 patients on long-term treatment (6–60 months) with amiodarone (dose range 350 mg per week to 2800 mg per week) to ascertain whether the corrected QT interval could predict plasma amiodarone or plasma desethylamiodarone concentration. The patients were assessed on three or four occasions one month apart. There were positive correlations for Δ% QTc and plasma amiodarone and Δ% QTc and plasma desethylamiodarone. There was approximately a four-fold variation for Δ% QTc and plasma amiodarone. This variation was not accounted for by between-occasion variation in the QTc interval, as the coefficient of variation was 2.1%. In six of the patients Δ% QTc either decreased or did not change. Δ% QTc is not a reliable predictor of plasma amiodarone concentration in the individual patient over time.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: hypokalaemia ; salbutamol ; terbutaline ; fenoterol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The hypokalaemic effects of equal doses (5 mg) of fenoterol, salbutamol, terbutaline and an equal volume of saline administered by nebulization were compared in eight healthy subjects. Plasma potassium was measured at 15-min intervals for 60 min and at 90 min, 2, 4 and 6 h following administration. Fenoterol, salbutamol and terbutaline all significantly decreased plasma potassium when compared to saline; however, the magnitude and duration of this effect differed between the active agents. Both fenoterol and terbutaline significantly reduced plasma potassium for 4 h whereas salbutamol was only different from 30 to 120 min. The maximum decrease occurred with fenoterol (−0.78 mmol/l), followed by terbutaline (−0.70 mmol/l) and salbutamol (−0.33 mmol/l). Both terbutaline and fenoterol had a significantly greater effect compared with salbutamol. When administered by nebulization fenoterol and terbutaline are likely to have a greater hypokalaemic effect then salbutamol and this effect is likely to be more long lasting.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Formoterol ; Asthma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To assess the cardiovascular and metabolic responses to increasing doses of formoterol administered from a dry powder inhaler. Methods: Twenty patients with mild to moderate asthma were given 12, 24, 48 and 96 μg of formoterol or a matched placebo on separate days. The doses were administered using a randomised, cross-over, double-blind design. The effects on heart rate, blood pressure, electromechanical systole (QS2I), the electrocardiographic QTc interval, plasma potassium (K); blood glucose and FEV1 were assessed prior to, and for 9 h following each dose. Results: There was no difference between the maximum effects of formoterol 12 μg and placebo; the 24 μg dose significantly decreased plasma K (−0.2 mmol · l−1) and increased blood glucose (1.8 mmol · l−1) compared to placebo. The two highest doses affected most of the variables with the 96 μg dose being significantly different from placebo for all indices, heart rate (9 beats · min−1), systol BP (4 mmHg), diastolic BP (−3 mmHg), QS2I (−11 ms), QTc (17 ms), plasma K (−0.5 mmol · l−1) and blood glucose (2.6 mmol · l−1). All doses of formoterol increased FEV1. Conclusion: Although there were dose-dependent effects on the extrapulmonary measurements, only the effects at the highest dose may be of clinical significance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: trazodone ; imipramine ; anticholinergic effects ; ECG ; antidepressants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The electrocardiographic and anticholinergic effects of trazodone (150 mg) and imipramine (75 mg) were investigated in 8 healthy volunteers. Both agents increased the QTc interval and decreased T wave height, but the effects occurred earlier with trazodone (from 30 min onwards) than with imipramine (150 and 180 min after dosing). Both drugs decreased heart rate, imipramine at 30 and 60 min and trazodone at 90 min. After 120 min, heart rate began to increase with imipramine an effect which was not seen with trazodone. Salivary volume was significantly decreased by imipramine at 120 and 180 min whereas trazodone did not influence salivary volume. Plasma levels of trazodone and imipramine were significantly related to the decrease in T wave amplitude. The increase in QTc interval correlated significantly with the plasma level of imipramine. These results suggest that trazodone, like the tricyclic antidepressants prolongs ventricular repolarization; but, in contrast to imipramine, it does not have anticholinergic activity.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A video questionnaire (VQ) for measuring asthma prevalence in adolescents was assessed for repeatability and validity in relation to bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) (PD20 ≤ 7.8 μmol methacholine). Comparison was also made with a standard, self completed written questionnaire (SQ), based on the IUATLD Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire, which included five questions seeking comparable data to those in the VQ. Both the VQ and SQ were administered to 707 schoolchildren (13–16 years), in whom English was the primary language. One hundred and six randomly selected children subsequently underwent bronchial challenge to methacholine. Both the sensitivity and specificity for BHR were higher for a combination of three or more positive responses to the VQ (0.73 and 0.88), than to the SQ (0.63 and 0.82), although these differences were not statistically significant (P= 0.24). When administered again after a two week interval, the VQ had a significantly higher (P= 0.03) coefficient of repeatability (0.79) than the SQ (0.50). We conclude that the VQ is a valid and reliable method of determining asthma prevalence, and propose that by providing data relatively free from biases due to language, culture, literacy or interviewing techniques it may be particularly useful when comparing asthma prevalence and severity in different populations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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