tryptophan analogues of insulin
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Abstract In continuation of our efforts to study the solution structure and conformational dynamics of insulin by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we have synthesized and examined the biological activity of five insulin analogues in which selected naturally occurring residues in the A-chain have been replaced with the strongly fluorescent tryptophan residue. The potency of these analogues was evaluated in lipogenesis assays in isolated rat adipocytes, in receptor binding assays using rat liver plasma membranes, and in two cases, in receptor binding assays using adipocytes. [A3 Trp]insulin displays a potency of 3% in receptor binding assays in both liver membranes and in adipocytes, but only 0.06% in lipogenesis assays as compared to porcine insulin. [A10 Trp] insulin displays a potency ofca. 40% andca. 25% in rat liver receptor binding and lipogenesis assays, respectively. [A13 Trp]insulin displays a potency ofca. 39% in rat liver receptor binding assays, but onlyca. 9% in receptor binding in adipocytes; in lipogenesis assays, [A13 Trp] insulin displays a potency ofca. 12%, comparable to its potency in adipocyte receptor binding assays. [A15 Trp]insulin exhibits a potency of 18% and 9% in rat liver receptor binding and lipogenesis assays, respectively. The doubly substituted analogue, [A14 Trp, A19 Trp] insulin, displays a potency ofca. 0.7% in both rat liver receptor binding assays and lipogenesis assays. These data suggest two major conclusions: (1) the A3 and A15 residues lie in sensitive regions in the insulin molecule, and structural modifications at these positions have deleterious effects on biological activity of the hormone; and (2) [A13 Trp]insulin appears to be a unique case in which an insulin analogue exhibits a higher potency when assayed in liver tissue than when assayed in fat cells.
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