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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-05-10
    Description: Vascular plants appeared ~410 million years ago, then diverged into several lineages of which only two survive: the euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants) and the lycophytes. We report here the genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (Selaginella), the first nonseed vascular plant genome reported. By comparing gene content in evolutionarily diverse taxa, we found that the transition from a gametophyte- to a sporophyte-dominated life cycle required far fewer new genes than the transition from a nonseed vascular to a flowering plant, whereas secondary metabolic genes expanded extensively and in parallel in the lycophyte and angiosperm lineages. Selaginella differs in posttranscriptional gene regulation, including small RNA regulation of repetitive elements, an absence of the trans-acting small interfering RNA pathway, and extensive RNA editing of organellar genes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166216/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166216/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Banks, Jo Ann -- Nishiyama, Tomoaki -- Hasebe, Mitsuyasu -- Bowman, John L -- Gribskov, Michael -- dePamphilis, Claude -- Albert, Victor A -- Aono, Naoki -- Aoyama, Tsuyoshi -- Ambrose, Barbara A -- Ashton, Neil W -- Axtell, Michael J -- Barker, Elizabeth -- Barker, Michael S -- Bennetzen, Jeffrey L -- Bonawitz, Nicholas D -- Chapple, Clint -- Cheng, Chaoyang -- Correa, Luiz Gustavo Guedes -- Dacre, Michael -- DeBarry, Jeremy -- Dreyer, Ingo -- Elias, Marek -- Engstrom, Eric M -- Estelle, Mark -- Feng, Liang -- Finet, Cedric -- Floyd, Sandra K -- Frommer, Wolf B -- Fujita, Tomomichi -- Gramzow, Lydia -- Gutensohn, Michael -- Harholt, Jesper -- Hattori, Mitsuru -- Heyl, Alexander -- Hirai, Tadayoshi -- Hiwatashi, Yuji -- Ishikawa, Masaki -- Iwata, Mineko -- Karol, Kenneth G -- Koehler, Barbara -- Kolukisaoglu, Uener -- Kubo, Minoru -- Kurata, Tetsuya -- Lalonde, Sylvie -- Li, Kejie -- Li, Ying -- Litt, Amy -- Lyons, Eric -- Manning, Gerard -- Maruyama, Takeshi -- Michael, Todd P -- Mikami, Koji -- Miyazaki, Saori -- Morinaga, Shin-ichi -- Murata, Takashi -- Mueller-Roeber, Bernd -- Nelson, David R -- Obara, Mari -- Oguri, Yasuko -- Olmstead, Richard G -- Onodera, Naoko -- Petersen, Bent Larsen -- Pils, Birgit -- Prigge, Michael -- Rensing, Stefan A -- Riano-Pachon, Diego Mauricio -- Roberts, Alison W -- Sato, Yoshikatsu -- Scheller, Henrik Vibe -- Schulz, Burkhard -- Schulz, Christian -- Shakirov, Eugene V -- Shibagaki, Nakako -- Shinohara, Naoki -- Shippen, Dorothy E -- Sorensen, Iben -- Sotooka, Ryo -- Sugimoto, Nagisa -- Sugita, Mamoru -- Sumikawa, Naomi -- Tanurdzic, Milos -- Theissen, Gunter -- Ulvskov, Peter -- Wakazuki, Sachiko -- Weng, Jing-Ke -- Willats, William W G T -- Wipf, Daniel -- Wolf, Paul G -- Yang, Lixing -- Zimmer, Andreas D -- Zhu, Qihui -- Mitros, Therese -- Hellsten, Uffe -- Loque, Dominique -- Otillar, Robert -- Salamov, Asaf -- Schmutz, Jeremy -- Shapiro, Harris -- Lindquist, Erika -- Lucas, Susan -- Rokhsar, Daniel -- Grigoriev, Igor V -- GM065383/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM84051/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG004164/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM043644/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084051/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084051-01A1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004164/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004164-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004164-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004164-04/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007757/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32-HG00035/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 May 20;332(6032):960-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1203810. Epub 2011 May 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. banksj@purdue.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21551031" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Angiosperms/chemistry/genetics ; *Biological Evolution ; Bryopsida/genetics ; Chlamydomonas/chemistry/genetics ; DNA Transposable Elements ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genes, Plant ; *Genome, Plant ; MicroRNAs/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Plant Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Proteome/analysis ; RNA Editing ; RNA, Plant/genetics ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Selaginellaceae/*genetics/growth & development/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: Lignin is a phenylpropanoid-derived heteropolymer important for the strength and rigidity of the plant secondary cell wall. Genetic disruption of lignin biosynthesis has been proposed as a means to improve forage and bioenergy crops, but frequently results in stunted growth and developmental abnormalities, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Here we show that the phenotype of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant is dependent on the transcriptional co-regulatory complex, Mediator. Disruption of the Mediator complex subunits MED5a (also known as REF4) and MED5b (also known as RFR1) rescues the stunted growth, lignin deficiency and widespread changes in gene expression seen in the phenylpropanoid pathway mutant ref8, without restoring the synthesis of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin subunits. Cell walls of rescued med5a/5b ref8 plants instead contain a novel lignin consisting almost exclusively of p-hydroxyphenyl lignin subunits, and moreover exhibit substantially facilitated polysaccharide saccharification. These results demonstrate that guaiacyl and syringyl lignin subunits are largely dispensable for normal growth and development, implicate Mediator in an active transcriptional process responsible for dwarfing and inhibition of lignin biosynthesis, and suggest that the transcription machinery and signalling pathways responding to cell wall defects may be important targets to include in efforts to reduce biomass recalcitrance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bonawitz, Nicholas D -- Kim, Jeong Im -- Tobimatsu, Yuki -- Ciesielski, Peter N -- Anderson, Nickolas A -- Ximenes, Eduardo -- Maeda, Junko -- Ralph, John -- Donohoe, Bryon S -- Ladisch, Michael -- Chapple, Clint -- England -- Nature. 2014 May 15;509(7500):376-80. doi: 10.1038/nature13084. Epub 2014 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA [2] Dow AgroSciences LLC, 9330 Zionsville Road, Indianapolis, Indiana 46268, USA (N.D.B.); Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA (J.M.). ; Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. ; Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA. ; Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering and the Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA [2] Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA [3] DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, and Wisconsin Energy Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53726, USA. ; 1] Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering and the Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA [2] Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670657" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arabidopsis/*genetics/*growth & development/metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/*genetics/metabolism ; Biofuels ; Biomass ; Cell Wall/chemistry/metabolism ; Cellulose/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics ; Lignin/biosynthesis/chemistry/*metabolism ; Mediator Complex/chemistry/deficiency/*genetics/metabolism ; Mutation/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Plants, Genetically Modified ; Protein Subunits/genetics/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-08-28
    Description: Plants possess arrays of functionally diverse specialized metabolites, many of which are distributed taxonomically. Here, we describe the evolution of a class of substituted alpha-pyrone metabolites in Arabidopsis, which we have named arabidopyrones. The biosynthesis of arabidopyrones requires a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP84A4) to generate the catechol-substituted substrate for an extradiol ring-cleavage dioxygenase (AtLigB). Unlike other ring-cleavage-derived plant metabolites made from tyrosine, arabidopyrones are instead derived from phenylalanine through the early steps of phenylpropanoid metabolism. Whereas CYP84A4, an Arabidopsis-specific paralog of the lignin-biosynthetic enzyme CYP84A1, has neofunctionalized relative to its ancestor, AtLigB homologs are widespread among land plants and many bacteria. This study exemplifies the rapid evolution of a biochemical pathway formed by the addition of a new biological activity into an existing metabolic infrastructure.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Weng, Jing-Ke -- Li, Yi -- Mo, Huaping -- Chapple, Clint -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Aug 24;337(6097):960-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1221614.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22923580" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Arabidopsis/enzymology/genetics/*metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Base Sequence ; Biosynthetic Pathways ; Catalytic Domain ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Dioxygenases/genetics/metabolism ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Duplication ; Genome, Plant ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Phenylalanine/metabolism ; Phylogeny ; Plant Stems/metabolism ; Plants, Genetically Modified ; Pyrones/chemistry/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:Bone mineral density – Men – Osteoporosis – Secondary osteoporosis – Vertebral fractures
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: To investigate the pathogenesis and sequelae of symptomatic vertebral fractures (VF) in men, we have performed a case–control study, comparing 91 men with VF (median age 64 years, range 27–79 years) with 91 age-matched control subjects. Medical history, clinical examination and investigations were performed in all patients and control subjects, to identify potential causes of secondary osteoporosis, together with bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. BMD was lower at the lumbar spine and all sites in the hip in patients with VF than in control subjects (p〈0.001). Potential underlying causes of secondary osteoporosis were found in 41% of men with VF, compared with 9% of control subjects (OR 7.1; 95% CI 3.1–16.4). Oral corticosteroid and anticonvulsant treatment were both associated with a significantly increased risk of VF (OR 6.1; 95% CI 1.3–28.4). Although hypogonadism was not associated with an increased risk of fracture, the level of sex hormone binding globulin was higher (p〈0.001) and the free androgen index lower (p〈0.001) in men with VF than control subjects. Other factors associated with a significantly increased risk of VF were family history of bone disease (OR 6.1; 95% CI 1.3–28.4), current smoking (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.2–6.7) and alcohol consumption of more than 250 g/week (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.7–8.7). Men with VF were more likely to complain of back pain (p〈0.001) and greater loss of height (p〈0.001) than control subjects, and had poorer (p〈0.001) scores for the energy, pain, emotion, sleep and physical mobility domains of the Nottingham Health Profile. We conclude that symptomatic VF in men are associated with reduced BMD, underlying causes of secondary osteoporosis such as corticosteroid and anticonvulsant treatment, family history of bone disease, current smoking and high alcohol consumption, and that they impair the perceived health of the individual.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Interstitial cystitis ; Bladder nerves ; Protein gene product 9.5 ; cystolysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The aetiology of pain in interstitial cystitis is not understood, although it has been reported to be due to release of mediators from mast cell granules. Cystolysis and intravesical instillation of dimethyl sulphoxide have been shown to relieve pain in this condition. We have studied the nerve population within the bladder wall using immunohistochemical stains for protein gene product 9.5. A group of 18 cases of chronic interstitial cystitis and 12 controls; neuropathic bladder (n=1), chronic bacterial cystitis (n=3), systemic lupus erythematosus cystitis (n=2) and normals (n=6), were investigated. There were significantly more nerve fibres within the sub-urothelial and detrusor muscle layers in chronic interstitial cystitis than there were in normals. Patients with chronic cystitis of other aetiology did not have a significant increase in nerve fibre density within the bladder wall suggesting a specific association between nerve fibre proliferation and interstitial cystitis. Cystolysis is shown to deplete selectively the submucosal nerve plexuses without altering the nerve density within detrusor muscle. This finding explains the desensitisation of the bladder without impairment of detrusor function after this procedure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1433-3023
    Keywords: Investigation ; Pathogenesis ; Stress incontinence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Genuine stress incontinence is a common problem whose pathogenesis stems from a disturbance of the normal anatomy and innervation of the bladder neck and proximal urethra. A thorough understanding of this, as well as a methodical and logical investigation of the problem, will ensure correct patient selection and achieve a good long-term cure. The authors present a discussion of stress incontinence and its investigation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-3023
    Keywords: Management ; Pathogenesis ; Stress incontinence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Genuine stress incontinence is a common problem whose pathogenesis stems from an anatomical defect of the bladder neck and proximal urethra. After correct investigation treatment can be instigated which will ensure a successful outcome. Contemporary management is reviewed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    World journal of urology 16 (1998), S. 268-273 
    ISSN: 1433-8726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Intractable detrusor overactivity can result in considerable morbidity and, in the case of neurogenic bladder dysfunction, can put the upper tracts at risk. Once conservative treatments have been exhausted the aim of surgery is to increase functional bladder capacity and decrease the maximal detrusor pressure at this capacity. The mainstay of contemporary therapy has been augmentation cystoplasty; the different techniques and recent literature are reviewed herein. Bladder autoaugmentation is compared and contrasted with augmentation cystoplasty and its role is discussed, as is the less invasive technique of sacral neuromodulation with reference to their role within the range of surgical treatments for detrusor activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of progressive toothbrush wear on plaque control. At baseline (week 0). each of 20 subjects was given a new toothbrush which they used for the 9-week period of the study. At weeks 0, 3 and 6, all plaque was professionally removed. The amount of plaque which accumulated in each of the 3 successive 3-week experimental periods was assessed at weeks 3, 6 and 9. Toothbrush wear was evaluated by measuring the increase in the brushing surface area of toothbrushes at weeks 3, 6 and 9 as compared with week 0. The brushing surface area was measured by computer analysis of tracings of the brushing surface outlines obtained from standardized photographs. Despite progressive toothbrush wear, the amount of plaque which accumulated in each successive 3-week period decreased. The decrease in plaque scores between weeks 3 and 6 and between weeks 3 and 9 were found to be highly significant (p〈0.001). Toothbrush wear varied widely amongst the subjects. When plaque scores were evaluated for the 10 subjects with highest toothbrush wear and the 10 with lowest wear, no significant differences were found between the 2 subgroups. Under the experimental conditions of this study, progressive toothbrush wear did not lead lo a decrease in plaque control. The improvement in plaque scores may have been due lo motivational effects resulting from study participation and anticipation of oral examinations. It was concluded that the wear status of a toothbrush may not be critical in ensuring optimal plaque control.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    BJOG 110 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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