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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Description: Background: Breast cancer is a heterogenous and complex disease. A rare site of metastatic breast cancer disease is the neck. Data about supraclavicular metastases in patients with metastatic breast cancer are still lacking. Hence, our study aimed to analyze histological subtypes of supraclavicular metastases compared to the primary site. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective hospital-based cohort study of patients with breast cancer who developed supraclavicular metastases. Diagnosis of supraclavicular metastases was confirmed by biopsy or diagnostic lymph node extirpation. Histological subtypes were analyzed and Kaplan–Meier estimates were calculated for overall survival. Results: A total of 20 patients were included in the analysis. The majority of the patients (12/20) had hormone receptor (HR)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative supraclavicular metastases, disease in 3/20 patients was HR-positive/HER2-positive, HR-negative/HER2-positive in 1/20 patients and basal-like in 4/20 patients. Total discordance rates for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 between primary and metastatic tumors were 20.0%, 36.8% and 29.4%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival was 80%, whereas the 5-year survival after the onset of neck metastasis was 45%. Conclusion: As a rare site of metastatic breast cancer, supraclavicular metastases are associated with a worse median overall survival from their onset. The high rate of discordance of histological subtype stresses the necessity for biopsies in patients with supraclavicular metastasis.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-21
    Description: Engineered macroscopic quantum systems based on superconducting electronic circuits are attractive for experimentally exploring diverse questions in quantum information science. At the current state of the art, quantum bits (qubits) are fabricated, initialized, controlled, read out and coupled to each other in simple circuits. This enables the realization of basic logic gates, the creation of complex entangled states and the demonstration of algorithms or error correction. Using different variants of low-noise parametric amplifiers, dispersive quantum non-demolition single-shot readout of single-qubit states with high fidelity has enabled continuous and discrete feedback control of single qubits. Here we realize full deterministic quantum teleportation with feed-forward in a chip-based superconducting circuit architecture. We use a set of two parametric amplifiers for both joint two-qubit and individual qubit single-shot readout, combined with flexible real-time digital electronics. Our device uses a crossed quantum bus technology that allows us to create complex networks with arbitrary connecting topology in a planar architecture. The deterministic teleportation process succeeds with order unit probability for any input state, as we prepare maximally entangled two-qubit states as a resource and distinguish all Bell states in a single two-qubit measurement with high efficiency and high fidelity. We teleport quantum states between two macroscopic systems separated by 6 mm at a rate of 10(4) s(-1), exceeding other reported implementations. The low transmission loss of superconducting waveguides is likely to enable the range of this and other schemes to be extended to significantly larger distances, enabling tests of non-locality and the realization of elements for quantum communication at microwave frequencies. The demonstrated feed-forward may also find application in error correction schemes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Steffen, L -- Salathe, Y -- Oppliger, M -- Kurpiers, P -- Baur, M -- Lang, C -- Eichler, C -- Puebla-Hellmann, G -- Fedorov, A -- Wallraff, A -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 15;500(7462):319-22. doi: 10.1038/nature12422.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. lsteffen@phys.ethz.ch〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23955231" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-01-17
    Description: The coherent generation of light, from masers to lasers, relies upon the specific structure of the individual emitters that lead to gain. Devices operating as lasers in the few-emitter limit provide opportunities for understanding quantum coherent phenomena, from terahertz sources to quantum communication. Here we demonstrate a maser that is driven by single-electron tunneling events. Semiconductor double quantum dots (DQDs) serve as a gain medium and are placed inside a high-quality factor microwave cavity. We verify maser action by comparing the statistics of the emitted microwave field above and below the maser threshold.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Y-Y -- Stehlik, J -- Eichler, C -- Gullans, M J -- Taylor, J M -- Petta, J R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 16;347(6219):285-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa2501.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. ; Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland-National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, MD 20742, USA. ; Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland-National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, MD 20742, USA. Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science, University of Maryland and NIST, College Park, MD 20742, USA. ; Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. petta@princeton.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25593187" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Deutscher Kongress für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie; 74. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, 96. Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie, 51. Tagung des Berufsverbandes der Fachärzte für Orthopädie; 20101026-20101029; Berlin; DOCEF15-580 /20101021/
    Publication Date: 2010-10-22
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 5
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  79th Annual Meeting of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery; 20080430-20080504; Bonn; DOC08hno93 /20080708/
    Publication Date: 2008-07-09
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 6
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  79. Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie; 20080430-20080504; Bonn; DOC08hnod632 /20080422/
    Publication Date: 2008-04-21
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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