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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-12-21
    Description: X-ray crystallography of G protein-coupled receptors and other membrane proteins is hampered by difficulties associated with growing sufficiently large crystals that withstand radiation damage and yield high-resolution data at synchrotron sources. We used an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with individual 50-femtosecond-duration x-ray pulses to minimize radiation damage and obtained a high-resolution room-temperature structure of a human serotonin receptor using sub-10-micrometer microcrystals grown in a membrane mimetic matrix known as lipidic cubic phase. Compared with the structure solved by using traditional microcrystallography from cryo-cooled crystals of about two orders of magnitude larger volume, the room-temperature XFEL structure displays a distinct distribution of thermal motions and conformations of residues that likely more accurately represent the receptor structure and dynamics in a cellular environment.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3902108/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3902108/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Wei -- Wacker, Daniel -- Gati, Cornelius -- Han, Gye Won -- James, Daniel -- Wang, Dingjie -- Nelson, Garrett -- Weierstall, Uwe -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Barty, Anton -- Zatsepin, Nadia A -- Li, Dianfan -- Messerschmidt, Marc -- Boutet, Sebastien -- Williams, Garth J -- Koglin, Jason E -- Seibert, M Marvin -- Wang, Chong -- Shah, Syed T A -- Basu, Shibom -- Fromme, Raimund -- Kupitz, Christopher -- Rendek, Kimberley N -- Grotjohann, Ingo -- Fromme, Petra -- Kirian, Richard A -- Beyerlein, Kenneth R -- White, Thomas A -- Chapman, Henry N -- Caffrey, Martin -- Spence, John C H -- Stevens, Raymond C -- Cherezov, Vadim -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073210/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM095583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Dec 20;342(6165):1521-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1244142.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24357322" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Crystallography, X-Ray/*instrumentation/*methods ; Humans ; Lasers ; Protein Conformation ; Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B/chemistry/radiation effects ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/*chemistry/radiation effects ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-12-06
    Description: Serial femtosecond crystallography using ultrashort pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enables studies of the light-triggered dynamics of biomolecules. We used microcrystals of photoactive yellow protein (a bacterial blue light photoreceptor) as a model system and obtained high-resolution, time-resolved difference electron density maps of excellent quality with strong features; these allowed the determination of structures of reaction intermediates to a resolution of 1.6 angstroms. Our results open the way to the study of reversible and nonreversible biological reactions on time scales as short as femtoseconds under conditions that maximize the extent of reaction initiation throughout the crystal.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4361027/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4361027/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tenboer, Jason -- Basu, Shibom -- Zatsepin, Nadia -- Pande, Kanupriya -- Milathianaki, Despina -- Frank, Matthias -- Hunter, Mark -- Boutet, Sebastien -- Williams, Garth J -- Koglin, Jason E -- Oberthuer, Dominik -- Heymann, Michael -- Kupitz, Christopher -- Conrad, Chelsie -- Coe, Jesse -- Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi -- Weierstall, Uwe -- James, Daniel -- Wang, Dingjie -- Grant, Thomas -- Barty, Anton -- Yefanov, Oleksandr -- Scales, Jennifer -- Gati, Cornelius -- Seuring, Carolin -- Srajer, Vukica -- Henning, Robert -- Schwander, Peter -- Fromme, Raimund -- Ourmazd, Abbas -- Moffat, Keith -- Van Thor, Jasper J -- Spence, John C H -- Fromme, Petra -- Chapman, Henry N -- Schmidt, Marius -- P41 GM103543/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM095583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R24 GM111072/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R24GM111072/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Dec 5;346(6214):1242-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1259357.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. ; Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. ; Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. ; Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg, Germany. ; Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. ; Hauptman-Woodward Institute, State University of New York at Buffalo, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA. ; Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg, Germany. Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. ; Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. ; Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. ; Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA. m-schmidt@uwm.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477465" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins/chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Crystallography, X-Ray/*methods ; Photoreceptors, Microbial/chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Protein Conformation ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-07-23
    Description: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signalling to numerous G-protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin, determined by serial femtosecond X-ray laser crystallography. Together with extensive biochemical and mutagenesis data, the structure reveals an overall architecture of the rhodopsin-arrestin assembly in which rhodopsin uses distinct structural elements, including transmembrane helix 7 and helix 8, to recruit arrestin. Correspondingly, arrestin adopts the pre-activated conformation, with a approximately 20 degrees rotation between the amino and carboxy domains, which opens up a cleft in arrestin to accommodate a short helix formed by the second intracellular loop of rhodopsin. This structure provides a basis for understanding GPCR-mediated arrestin-biased signalling and demonstrates the power of X-ray lasers for advancing the frontiers of structural biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521999/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521999/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Yanyong -- Zhou, X Edward -- Gao, Xiang -- He, Yuanzheng -- Liu, Wei -- Ishchenko, Andrii -- Barty, Anton -- White, Thomas A -- Yefanov, Oleksandr -- Han, Gye Won -- Xu, Qingping -- de Waal, Parker W -- Ke, Jiyuan -- Tan, M H Eileen -- Zhang, Chenghai -- Moeller, Arne -- West, Graham M -- Pascal, Bruce D -- Van Eps, Ned -- Caro, Lydia N -- Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A -- Lee, Regina J -- Suino-Powell, Kelly M -- Gu, Xin -- Pal, Kuntal -- Ma, Jinming -- Zhi, Xiaoyong -- Boutet, Sebastien -- Williams, Garth J -- Messerschmidt, Marc -- Gati, Cornelius -- Zatsepin, Nadia A -- Wang, Dingjie -- James, Daniel -- Basu, Shibom -- Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi -- Conrad, Chelsie E -- Coe, Jesse -- Liu, Haiguang -- Lisova, Stella -- Kupitz, Christopher -- Grotjohann, Ingo -- Fromme, Raimund -- Jiang, Yi -- Tan, Minjia -- Yang, Huaiyu -- Li, Jun -- Wang, Meitian -- Zheng, Zhong -- Li, Dianfan -- Howe, Nicole -- Zhao, Yingming -- Standfuss, Jorg -- Diederichs, Kay -- Dong, Yuhui -- Potter, Clinton S -- Carragher, Bridget -- Caffrey, Martin -- Jiang, Hualiang -- Chapman, Henry N -- Spence, John C H -- Fromme, Petra -- Weierstall, Uwe -- Ernst, Oliver P -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Gurevich, Vsevolod V -- Griffin, Patrick R -- Hubbell, Wayne L -- Stevens, Raymond C -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Melcher, Karsten -- Xu, H Eric -- DK071662/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- EY005216/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY011500/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM077561/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM095583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM097463/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM102545/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM104212/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM108635/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30EY000331/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103393/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41RR001209/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073210/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK066202/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK071662/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY011500/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087413/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM109955/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027270/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094586/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 30;523(7562):561-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14656. Epub 2015 Jul 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. ; Joint Center for Structural Genomics, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. ; 1] Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA [2] Department of Obstetrics &Gynecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ; The National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy, New York Structural Biology Center, New York, New York 10027, USA. ; Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute, Scripps Florida, Jupiter, Florida 33458, USA. ; Jules Stein Eye Institute and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. ; 1] Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA [2] BioXFEL, NSF Science and Technology Center, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Haidian District, Beijing 10084, China. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China. ; Department of Obstetrics &Gynecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ; Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; School of Medicine and School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; 1] BioXFEL, NSF Science and Technology Center, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA [2] Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Laboratory of Biomolecular Research at Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Department of Biology, Universitat Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany. ; Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. ; 1] Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg, Germany [2] Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, 22761 Hamburg, Germany. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [2] Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; 1] Department of Chemistry, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA [2] Department of Biological Sciences, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA [3] iHuman Institute, ShanghaiTech University, 2F Building 6, 99 Haike Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai 201210, China. ; 1] Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA [2] VARI-SIMM Center, Center for Structure and Function of Drug Targets, CAS-Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200343" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arrestin/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Disulfides/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Lasers ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Multiprotein Complexes/biosynthesis/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Reproducibility of Results ; Rhodopsin/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; X-Rays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: A variety of organisms have evolved mechanisms to detect and respond to light, in which the response is mediated by protein structural changes after photon absorption. The initial step is often the photoisomerization of a conjugated chromophore. Isomerization occurs on ultrafast time scales and is substantially influenced by the chromophore environment. Here we identify structural changes associated with the earliest steps in the trans-to-cis isomerization of the chromophore in photoactive yellow protein. Femtosecond hard x-ray pulses emitted by the Linac Coherent Light Source were used to conduct time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography on photoactive yellow protein microcrystals over a time range from 100 femtoseconds to 3 picoseconds to determine the structural dynamics of the photoisomerization reaction.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pande, Kanupriya -- Hutchison, Christopher D M -- Groenhof, Gerrit -- Aquila, Andy -- Robinson, Josef S -- Tenboer, Jason -- Basu, Shibom -- Boutet, Sebastien -- DePonte, Daniel P -- Liang, Mengning -- White, Thomas A -- Zatsepin, Nadia A -- Yefanov, Oleksandr -- Morozov, Dmitry -- Oberthuer, Dominik -- Gati, Cornelius -- Subramanian, Ganesh -- James, Daniel -- Zhao, Yun -- Koralek, Jake -- Brayshaw, Jennifer -- Kupitz, Christopher -- Conrad, Chelsie -- Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi -- Coe, Jesse D -- Metz, Markus -- Xavier, Paulraj Lourdu -- Grant, Thomas D -- Koglin, Jason E -- Ketawala, Gihan -- Fromme, Raimund -- Srajer, Vukica -- Henning, Robert -- Spence, John C H -- Ourmazd, Abbas -- Schwander, Peter -- Weierstall, Uwe -- Frank, Matthias -- Fromme, Petra -- Barty, Anton -- Chapman, Henry N -- Moffat, Keith -- van Thor, Jasper J -- Schmidt, Marius -- P41GM103393/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41RR001209/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01EY024363/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM095583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R24GM111072/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 May 6;352(6286):725-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5081. Epub 2016 May 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA. Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. ; Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Jyvaskyla, Post Office Box 35, 40014 Jyvaskyla, Finland. ; Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. ; Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA. ; School of Molecular Sciences and Biodesign Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. ; Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. ; Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. ; Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. IMPRS-UFAST, Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany. ; Hauptman-Woodward Institute, State University of New York at Buffalo, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA. ; Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. ; Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. Center for Ultrafast Imaging, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany. ; Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27151871" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Keywords: TUMOR-CELLS ; MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION ; HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ; HEPARAN-SULFATE ; VACCINIA VIRUS ; CYTOTOXICITY RECEPTORS ; HUMAN NK CELLS ; VIRUS-INFECTED CELLS ; MEDIATED CYTOLYSIS ; ECTROMELIA VIRUS
    Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are an important element in the immune defense against the orthopox family members vaccinia virus (VV) and ectromelia virus (ECTV). NK cells are regulated through inhibitory and activating signaling receptors, the latter involving NKG2D and the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR), NKp46, NKp44 and NKp30. Here we report that VV infection results in an upregulation of ligand structures for NKp30 and NKp46 on infected cells, whereas the binding of NKp44 and NKG2D was not significantly affected. Likewise, infection with ectromelia virus (ECTV), the mousepox agent, enhanced binding of NKp30 and, to a lesser extent, NKp46. The hemagglutinin (HA) molecules from VV and ECTV, which are known virulence factors, were identified as novel ligands for NKp30 and NKp46. Using NK cells with selectively silenced NCR expression and NCR-CD3f reporter cells, we observed that HA present on the surface of VV-infected cells, or in the form of recombinant soluble protein, was able to block NKp30-triggered activation, whereas it stimulated the activation through NKp46. The net effect of this complex influence on NK cell activity resulted in a decreased NK lysis susceptibility of infected cells at late time points of VV infection when HA was expression was pronounced. We conclude that poxviral HA represents a conserved ligand of NCR, exerting a novel immune escape mechanism through its blocking effect on NKp30-mediated activation at a late stage of infection.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21901096
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