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  • 1
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-04-17
    Description: Plant innate immunity is activated on the detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) at the cell surface, or of pathogen effector proteins inside the plant cell. Together, PAMP-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity constitute powerful defences against various phytopathogens. Pathogenic bacteria inject a variety of effector proteins into the host cell to assist infection or propagation. A number of effector proteins have been shown to inhibit plant immunity, but the biochemical basis remains unknown for the vast majority of these effectors. Here we show that the Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris type III effector AvrAC enhances virulence and inhibits plant immunity by specifically targeting Arabidopsis BIK1 and RIPK, two receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases known to mediate immune signalling. AvrAC is a uridylyl transferase that adds uridine 5'-monophosphate to and conceals conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of BIK1 and RIPK, reducing their kinase activity and consequently inhibiting downstream signalling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Feng, Feng -- Yang, Fan -- Rong, Wei -- Wu, Xiaogang -- Zhang, Jie -- Chen, She -- He, Chaozu -- Zhou, Jian-Min -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 15;485(7396):114-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10962.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22504181" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Arabidopsis/*enzymology/*immunology/microbiology ; Arabidopsis Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/immunology/metabolism ; Bacterial Proteins/*metabolism ; Brassica/immunology/microbiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phosphorylation ; Plant Diseases/immunology/microbiology ; *Plant Immunity/immunology ; Plants, Genetically Modified ; Protein Kinases/chemistry/immunology/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*antagonists & ; inhibitors/chemistry/immunology/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Virulence ; Xanthomonas campestris/*enzymology/immunology/pathogenicity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-02-27
    Description: RNA-binding proteins control many aspects of cellular biology through binding single-stranded RNA binding motifs (RBMs). However, RBMs can be buried within their local RNA structures, thus inhibiting RNA-protein interactions. N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A), the most abundant and dynamic internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNA, can be selectively recognized by the YTHDF2 protein to affect the stability of cytoplasmic mRNAs, but how m(6)A achieves its wide-ranging physiological role needs further exploration. Here we show in human cells that m(6)A controls the RNA-structure-dependent accessibility of RBMs to affect RNA-protein interactions for biological regulation; we term this mechanism 'the m(6)A-switch'. We found that m(6)A alters the local structure in mRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) to facilitate binding of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (HNRNPC), an abundant nuclear RNA-binding protein responsible for pre-mRNA processing. Combining photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) and anti-m(6)A immunoprecipitation (MeRIP) approaches enabled us to identify 39,060 m(6)A-switches among HNRNPC-binding sites; and global m(6)A reduction decreased HNRNPC binding at 2,798 high-confidence m(6)A-switches. We determined that these m(6)A-switch-regulated HNRNPC-binding activities affect the abundance as well as alternative splicing of target mRNAs, demonstrating the regulatory role of m(6)A-switches on gene expression and RNA maturation. Our results illustrate how RNA-binding proteins gain regulated access to their RBMs through m(6)A-dependent RNA structural remodelling, and provide a new direction for investigating RNA-modification-coded cellular biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355918/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355918/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Nian -- Dai, Qing -- Zheng, Guanqun -- He, Chuan -- Parisien, Marc -- Pan, Tao -- GM088599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- K01 HG006699/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- K01HG006699/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM088599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000430/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 26;518(7540):560-4. doi: 10.1038/nature14234.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA [2] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA [3] Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA [4] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA [2] Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25719671" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine/*analogs & derivatives/metabolism ; Alternative Splicing/genetics ; Base Sequence ; Cross-Linking Reagents ; HEK293 Cells ; HeLa Cells ; Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group C/*metabolism ; Humans ; Immunoprecipitation ; *Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Nucleotide Motifs ; Protein Binding ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Transcriptome
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-05-15
    Description: A novel Ebola virus (EBOV) first identified in March 2014 has infected more than 25,000 people in West Africa, resulting in more than 10,000 deaths. Preliminary analyses of genome sequences of 81 EBOV collected from March to June 2014 from Guinea and Sierra Leone suggest that the 2014 EBOV originated from an independent transmission event from its natural reservoir followed by sustained human-to-human infections. It has been reported that the EBOV genome variation might have an effect on the efficacy of sequence-based virus detection and candidate therapeutics. However, only limited viral information has been available since July 2014, when the outbreak entered a rapid growth phase. Here we describe 175 full-length EBOV genome sequences from five severely stricken districts in Sierra Leone from 28 September to 11 November 2014. We found that the 2014 EBOV has become more phylogenetically and genetically diverse from July to November 2014, characterized by the emergence of multiple novel lineages. The substitution rate for the 2014 EBOV was estimated to be 1.23 x 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (95% highest posterior density interval, 1.04 x 10(-3) to 1.41 x 10(-3) substitutions per site per year), approximating to that observed between previous EBOV outbreaks. The sharp increase in genetic diversity of the 2014 EBOV warrants extensive EBOV surveillance in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia to better understand the viral evolution and transmission dynamics of the ongoing outbreak. These data will facilitate the international efforts to develop vaccines and therapeutics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tong, Yi-Gang -- Shi, Wei-Feng -- Liu, Di -- Qian, Jun -- Liang, Long -- Bo, Xiao-Chen -- Liu, Jun -- Ren, Hong-Guang -- Fan, Hang -- Ni, Ming -- Sun, Yang -- Jin, Yuan -- Teng, Yue -- Li, Zhen -- Kargbo, David -- Dafae, Foday -- Kanu, Alex -- Chen, Cheng-Chao -- Lan, Zhi-Heng -- Jiang, Hui -- Luo, Yang -- Lu, Hui-Jun -- Zhang, Xiao-Guang -- Yang, Fan -- Hu, Yi -- Cao, Yu-Xi -- Deng, Yong-Qiang -- Su, Hao-Xiang -- Sun, Yu -- Liu, Wen-Sen -- Wang, Zhuang -- Wang, Cheng-Yu -- Bu, Zhao-Yang -- Guo, Zhen-Dong -- Zhang, Liu-Bo -- Nie, Wei-Min -- Bai, Chang-Qing -- Sun, Chun-Hua -- An, Xiao-Ping -- Xu, Pei-Song -- Zhang, Xiang-Li-Lan -- Huang, Yong -- Mi, Zhi-Qiang -- Yu, Dong -- Yao, Hong-Wu -- Feng, Yong -- Xia, Zhi-Ping -- Zheng, Xue-Xing -- Yang, Song-Tao -- Lu, Bing -- Jiang, Jia-Fu -- Kargbo, Brima -- He, Fu-Chu -- Gao, George F -- Cao, Wu-Chun -- China Mobile Laboratory Testing Team in Sierra Leone -- England -- Nature. 2015 Aug 6;524(7563):93-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14490. Epub 2015 May 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing 100071, China. ; Institute of Pathogen Biology, Taishan Medical College, Taian 271000, China. ; Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. ; Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Changchun 130122, China. ; Beijing Key Laboratory of New Molecular Diagnostics Technology, Beijing 100850, China. ; Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. ; Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Freetown, Sierra Leone. ; Sierra Leone-China Friendship Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences &Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China. ; Institute of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China. ; The No. 302 Hospital, Beijing 100039, China. ; The No. 307 Hospital, Beijing 100071, China. ; Department of international cooperation, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing 100044, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing 102206, China. ; 1] Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China [2] Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China [3] Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25970247" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-07-23
    Description: 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA plays an important role in gene expression, genomic imprinting, and suppression of transposable elements. 5mC can be converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by the Tet (ten eleven translocation) proteins. Here, we show that, in addition to 5hmC, the Tet proteins can generate 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) from 5mC in an enzymatic activity-dependent manner. Furthermore, we reveal the presence of 5fC and 5caC in genomic DNA of mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse organs. The genomic content of 5hmC, 5fC, and 5caC can be increased or reduced through overexpression or depletion of Tet proteins. Thus, we identify two previously unknown cytosine derivatives in genomic DNA as the products of Tet proteins. Our study raises the possibility that DNA demethylation may occur through Tet-catalyzed oxidation followed by decarboxylation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3495246/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3495246/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ito, Shinsuke -- Shen, Li -- Dai, Qing -- Wu, Susan C -- Collins, Leonard B -- Swenberg, James A -- He, Chuan -- Zhang, Yi -- GM071440/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM68804/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30 ES010126/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30 ES010126-11/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30ES10126/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P42 ES005948/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P42 ES005948-17/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P42ES5948/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM068804/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK089565/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Sep 2;333(6047):1300-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1210597. Epub 2011 Jul 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7295, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21778364" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 5-Methylcytosine/*metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Cytosine/*analogs & derivatives/metabolism ; DNA/*metabolism ; DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Humans ; Mice ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-11-29
    Description: N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal (non-cap) modification present in the messenger RNA of all higher eukaryotes. Although essential to cell viability and development, the exact role of m(6)A modification remains to be determined. The recent discovery of two m(6)A demethylases in mammalian cells highlighted the importance of m(6)A in basic biological functions and disease. Here we show that m(6)A is selectively recognized by the human YTH domain family 2 (YTHDF2) 'reader' protein to regulate mRNA degradation. We identified over 3,000 cellular RNA targets of YTHDF2, most of which are mRNAs, but which also include non-coding RNAs, with a conserved core motif of G(m(6)A)C. We further establish the role of YTHDF2 in RNA metabolism, showing that binding of YTHDF2 results in the localization of bound mRNA from the translatable pool to mRNA decay sites, such as processing bodies. The carboxy-terminal domain of YTHDF2 selectively binds to m(6)A-containing mRNA, whereas the amino-terminal domain is responsible for the localization of the YTHDF2-mRNA complex to cellular RNA decay sites. Our results indicate that the dynamic m(6)A modification is recognized by selectively binding proteins to affect the translation status and lifetime of mRNA.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877715/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877715/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Xiao -- Lu, Zhike -- Gomez, Adrian -- Hon, Gary C -- Yue, Yanan -- Han, Dali -- Fu, Ye -- Parisien, Marc -- Dai, Qing -- Jia, Guifang -- Ren, Bing -- Pan, Tao -- He, Chuan -- GM071440/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM088599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- K01 HG006699/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM071440/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM088599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 2;505(7481):117-20. doi: 10.1038/nature12730. Epub 2013 Nov 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, UCSD Moores Cancer Center and Institute of Genome Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0653, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA [2] Department of Chemical Biology and Synthetic and Functional Biomolecules Center, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24284625" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine/*analogs & derivatives/metabolism/pharmacology ; Base Sequence ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Nucleotide Motifs ; Organelles/genetics/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Biosynthesis ; *RNA Stability/drug effects ; RNA Transport ; RNA, Messenger/*chemistry/*metabolism ; RNA, Untranslated/chemistry/metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/classification/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-11-03
    Description: DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are involved in DNA demethylation through iteratively oxidizing 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Here we show that human TET1 and TET2 are more active on 5mC-DNA than 5hmC/5fC-DNA substrates. We determine the crystal structures of TET2-5hmC-DNA and TET2-5fC-DNA complexes at 1.80 A and 1.97 A resolution, respectively. The cytosine portion of 5hmC/5fC is specifically recognized by TET2 in a manner similar to that of 5mC in the TET2-5mC-DNA structure, and the pyrimidine base of 5mC/5hmC/5fC adopts an almost identical conformation within the catalytic cavity. However, the hydroxyl group of 5hmC and carbonyl group of 5fC face towards the opposite direction because the hydroxymethyl group of 5hmC and formyl group of 5fC adopt restrained conformations through forming hydrogen bonds with the 1-carboxylate of NOG and N4 exocyclic nitrogen of cytosine, respectively. Biochemical analyses indicate that the substrate preference of TET2 results from the different efficiencies of hydrogen abstraction in TET2-mediated oxidation. The restrained conformation of 5hmC and 5fC within the catalytic cavity may prevent their abstractable hydrogen(s) adopting a favourable orientation for hydrogen abstraction and thus result in low catalytic efficiency. Our studies demonstrate that the substrate preference of TET2 results from the intrinsic value of its substrates at their 5mC derivative groups and suggest that 5hmC is relatively stable and less prone to further oxidation by TET proteins. Therefore, TET proteins are evolutionarily tuned to be less reactive towards 5hmC and facilitate the generation of 5hmC as a potentially stable mark for regulatory functions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hu, Lulu -- Lu, Junyan -- Cheng, Jingdong -- Rao, Qinhui -- Li, Ze -- Hou, Haifeng -- Lou, Zhiyong -- Zhang, Lei -- Li, Wei -- Gong, Wei -- Liu, Mengjie -- Sun, Chang -- Yin, Xiaotong -- Li, Jie -- Tan, Xiangshi -- Wang, Pengcheng -- Wang, Yinsheng -- Fang, Dong -- Cui, Qiang -- Yang, Pengyuan -- He, Chuan -- Jiang, Hualiang -- Luo, Cheng -- Xu, Yanhui -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 5;527(7576):118-22. doi: 10.1038/nature15713. Epub 2015 Oct 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. ; Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Department of Systems Biology for Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; Drug Discovery and Design Center, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China. ; Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. ; Laboratory of Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; MOE Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Department of Chemistry, University of California-Riverside, Riverside, California 92521-0403, USA. ; Theoretical Chemistry Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524525" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 5-Methylcytosine/metabolism ; Biocatalysis ; Catalytic Domain ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cytosine/analogs & derivatives/metabolism ; DNA/*chemistry/*metabolism ; DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Models, Molecular ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Protein Binding ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-07-01
    Description: DNA methylation at selective cytosine residues (5-methylcytosine (5mC)) and their removal by TET-mediated DNA demethylation are critical for setting up pluripotent states in early embryonic development. TET enzymes successively convert 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), with 5fC and 5caC subject to removal by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) in conjunction with base excision repair. Early reports indicate that 5fC and 5caC could be stably detected on enhancers, promoters and gene bodies, with distinct effects on gene expression, but the mechanisms have remained elusive. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of yeast elongating RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in complex with a DNA template containing oxidized 5mCs, revealing specific hydrogen bonds between the 5-carboxyl group of 5caC and the conserved epi-DNA recognition loop in the polymerase. This causes a positional shift for incoming nucleoside 5'-triphosphate (NTP), thus compromising nucleotide addition. To test the implication of this structural insight in vivo, we determined the global effect of increased 5fC/5caC levels on transcription, finding that such DNA modifications indeed retarded Pol II elongation on gene bodies. These results demonstrate the functional impact of oxidized 5mCs on gene expression and suggest a novel role for Pol II as a specific and direct epigenetic sensor during transcription elongation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521995/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521995/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Lanfeng -- Zhou, Yu -- Xu, Liang -- Xiao, Rui -- Lu, Xingyu -- Chen, Liang -- Chong, Jenny -- Li, Hairi -- He, Chuan -- Fu, Xiang-Dong -- Wang, Dong -- GM052872/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM102362/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG004659/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG006827/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM052872/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM102362/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004659/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG006827/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 30;523(7562):621-5. doi: 10.1038/nature14482. Epub 2015 Jun 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26123024" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cytosine/*analogs & derivatives/chemistry/metabolism ; DNA Methylation ; DNA Repair ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Kinetics ; RNA Polymerase II/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*enzymology/genetics/metabolism ; Substrate Specificity ; Templates, Genetic ; Thymine DNA Glycosylase/metabolism ; *Transcription Elongation, Genetic
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-07-06
    Description: DNA methylation is implicated in mammalian brain development and plasticity underlying learning and memory. We report the genome-wide composition, patterning, cell specificity, and dynamics of DNA methylation at single-base resolution in human and mouse frontal cortex throughout their lifespan. Widespread methylome reconfiguration occurs during fetal to young adult development, coincident with synaptogenesis. During this period, highly conserved non-CG methylation (mCH) accumulates in neurons, but not glia, to become the dominant form of methylation in the human neuronal genome. Moreover, we found an mCH signature that identifies genes escaping X-chromosome inactivation. Last, whole-genome single-base resolution 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) maps revealed that hmC marks fetal brain cell genomes at putative regulatory regions that are CG-demethylated and activated in the adult brain and that CG demethylation at these hmC-poised loci depends on Tet2 activity.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3785061/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3785061/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lister, Ryan -- Mukamel, Eran A -- Nery, Joseph R -- Urich, Mark -- Puddifoot, Clare A -- Johnson, Nicholas D -- Lucero, Jacinta -- Huang, Yun -- Dwork, Andrew J -- Schultz, Matthew D -- Yu, Miao -- Tonti-Filippini, Julian -- Heyn, Holger -- Hu, Shijun -- Wu, Joseph C -- Rao, Anjana -- Esteller, Manel -- He, Chuan -- Haghighi, Fatemeh G -- Sejnowski, Terrence J -- Behrens, M Margarita -- Ecker, Joseph R -- AI44432/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA151535/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- HD065812/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- HG006827/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- K99NS080911/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- MH094670/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI044432/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA151535/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD065812/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG006827/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH094670/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH094774/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Aug 9;341(6146):1237905. doi: 10.1126/science.1237905. Epub 2013 Jul 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Genomic Analysis Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ryan.lister@uwa.edu.au〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23828890" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 5-Methylcytosine/metabolism ; Adult ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Conserved Sequence ; Cytosine/*analogs & derivatives/metabolism ; *DNA Methylation ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Epigenomics ; Frontal Lobe/*growth & development ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Longevity ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; X Chromosome Inactivation/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-04
    Description: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily mediated by Th2 immune mechanisms. Numerous studies have suggested that early life exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is negatively associated with allergic asthma. One proposed mechanism invokes desensitization of lung epithelial cells by LPS. We report here that acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH), a host lipase that degrades and inactivates LPS, renders mice more susceptible to house dust mite (HDM)–induced allergic asthma. Lung epithelial cells from Aoah –/– mice are refractory to HDM stimulation, decreasing dendritic cell activation and Th2 responses. Antibiotic treatment that diminished commensal LPS-producing bacteria normalized Aoah –/– responses to HDM, while giving LPS intrarectally ameliorated asthma. Aoah –/– mouse feces, plasma, and lungs contained more bioactive LPS than did those of Aoah +/+ mice. By inactivating commensal LPS, AOAH thus prevents desensitization of lung epithelial cells. An enzyme that prevents severe lung inflammation/injury in Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia has the seemingly paradoxical effect of predisposing to a Th2-mediated airway disease.
    Keywords: Mucosal Immunology
    Print ISSN: 0022-1007
    Electronic ISSN: 1540-9538
    Topics: Medicine
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