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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-11-01
    Description: The 2002-3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus suggests that this group of viruses remains a key threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested to be the natural reservoirs of both viruses, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa, but none is considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Here we report whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats (family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China: RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat coronaviruses, particularly in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat faecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses ACE2 from humans, civets and Chinese horseshoe bats for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen-discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ge, Xing-Yi -- Li, Jia-Lu -- Yang, Xing-Lou -- Chmura, Aleksei A -- Zhu, Guangjian -- Epstein, Jonathan H -- Mazet, Jonna K -- Hu, Ben -- Zhang, Wei -- Peng, Cheng -- Zhang, Yu-Ji -- Luo, Chu-Ming -- Tan, Bing -- Wang, Ning -- Zhu, Yan -- Crameri, Gary -- Zhang, Shu-Yi -- Wang, Lin-Fa -- Daszak, Peter -- Shi, Zheng-Li -- R01AI079231/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01TW005869/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- R56TW009502/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 28;503(7477):535-8. doi: 10.1038/nature12711. Epub 2013 Oct 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China [2].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24172901" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; China ; Chiroptera/*virology ; Disease Reservoirs/virology ; Feces/virology ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique ; Genome, Viral/genetics ; Host Specificity ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pandemics/prevention & control/veterinary ; Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics/*metabolism ; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Receptors, Virus/genetics/metabolism ; SARS Virus/genetics/*isolation & purification/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & ; control/transmission/veterinary/virology ; Species Specificity ; Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry/metabolism ; Vero Cells ; Virion/isolation & purification/ultrastructure ; Virus Internalization ; Viverridae/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: The RAS isoforms are frequently mutated in many types of human cancers, including PAX3/PAX7 fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma. Pediatric RMS arises from skeletal muscle progenitor cells that have failed to differentiate normally. The role of mutant RAS in this differentiation blockade is incompletely understood. We demonstrate that oncogenic RAS, acting through the RAF–MEK [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase]–ERK (extracellular signal–regulated kinase) MAPK effector pathway, inhibits myogenic differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma by repressing the expression of the prodifferentiation myogenic transcription factor, MYOG. This repression is mediated by ERK2-dependent promoter-proximal stalling of RNA polymerase II at the MYOG locus. Small-molecule screening with a library of mechanistically defined inhibitors showed that RAS-driven RMS is vulnerable to MEK inhibition. MEK inhibition with trametinib leads to the loss of ERK2 at the MYOG promoter and releases the transcriptional stalling of MYOG expression. MYOG subsequently opens chromatin and establishes super-enhancers at genes required for late myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, trametinib, in combination with an inhibitor of IGF1R, potently decreases rhabdomyosarcoma cell viability and slows tumor growth in xenograft models. Therefore, this combination represents a potential therapeutic for RAS-mutated rhabdomyosarcoma.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 57 (1985), S. 1-5 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The resolution of Thomson spectrometers is examined. Charge, mass energy, and momentum resolutions are found as functions of collimation parameters and field strengths. The results are generally applicable to all Thomson spectrometer systems. In conjunction with this analysis, a compact Thomson spectrometer with high resolving power is described.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Fluids 28 (1985), S. 2305-2307 
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The electron beam produced by a compact plasma focus device has been investigated. The Mather geometry plasma focus electrodes were modified to permit extraction of accelerated electrons. Performance of the plasma focus as an electron accelerator using different gas species and pressures is investigated. Also, results from measurements of the beam parameters are given.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 56 (1985), S. 1534-1536 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A compact magnetic energy analyzer designed for the measurement of electron energies in the range from 20 keV through 1.5 MeV is described. The simple device, based on the semicircular focusing principle, is constructed from a high induction permanent magnet enclosed in a soft iron case. The design and operation of the analyzer in pulsed electron beam devices are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-14
    Description: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has represented a human health threat since 2012. Although several MERS-related CoVs that belong to the same species as MERS-CoV have been identified from bats, they do not use the MERS-CoV receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). Here, we screened 1,059 bat samples from at least 30 bat species collected in different regions in south China and identified 89 strains of lineage C betacoronaviruses, including Tylonycteris pachypus coronavirus HKU4 , Pipistrellus pipistrellus coronavirus HKU5 , and MERS-related CoVs. We sequenced the full-length genomes of two positive samples collected from the great evening bat, Ia io , from Guangdong Province. The two genomes were highly similar and exhibited genomic structures identical to those of other lineage C betacoronaviruses. While they exhibited genome-wide nucleotide identities of only 75.3 to 81.2% with other MERS-related CoVs, their gene-coding regions were highly similar to their counterparts, except in the case of the spike proteins. Further protein-protein interaction assays demonstrated that the spike proteins of these MERS-related CoVs bind to the receptor DPP4. Recombination analysis suggested that the newly discovered MERS-related CoVs have acquired their spike genes from a DPP4-recognizing bat coronavirus HKU4. Our study provides further evidence that bats represent the evolutionary origins of MERS-CoV. IMPORTANCE Previous studies suggested that MERS-CoV originated in bats. However, its evolutionary path from bats to humans remains unclear. In this study, we discovered 89 novel lineage C betacoronaviruses in eight bat species. We provide evidence of a MERS-related CoV derived from the great evening bat that uses the same host receptor as human MERS-CoV. This virus also provides evidence for a natural recombination event between the bat MERS-related CoV and another bat coronavirus, HKU4. Our study expands the host ranges of MERS-related CoV and represents an important step toward establishing bats as the natural reservoir of MERS-CoV. These findings may lead to improved epidemiological surveillance of MERS-CoV and the prevention and control of the spread of MERS-CoV to humans.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-16
    Description: Frances C. Tilley, Matthew Gallon, Chong Luo, Chris M. Danson, Jing Zhou, and Peter J. Cullen Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic human disease, with around 12.5 million people affected worldwide. ADPKD results from mutations in either PKD1 or PKD2 , which encode the atypical G-protein coupled receptor polycystin-1 (PC1) and the transient receptor potential channel polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively. Although altered intracellular trafficking of PC1 and PC2 is an underlying feature of ADPKD, the mechanisms which govern vesicular transport of the polycystins through the biosynthetic and endosomal membrane networks remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we describe an interaction between PC2 and retromer, a master controller for the sorting of integral membrane proteins through the endo-lysosomal network. We show that association of PC2 with retromer occurs via a region in the PC2 cytoplasmic amino-terminal domain, independently of the retromer-binding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and scar homologue (WASH) complex. Based on observations that retromer preferentially interacts with a trafficking population of PC2, and that ciliary levels of PC1 are reduced upon mutation of key residues required for retromer association in PC2, our data are consistent with the identification of PC2 as a retromer cargo protein. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9533
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9137
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Company of Biologists
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