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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-11-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bolukbasi, Burcu -- Berente, Nicholas -- Cutcher-Gershenfeld, Joel -- Dechurch, Leslie -- Flint, Courtney -- Haberman, Michael -- King, John Leslie -- Knight, Eric -- Lawrence, Barbara -- Masella, Ethan -- McElroy, Charles -- Mittleman, Barbara -- Nolan, Mark -- Radik, Melanie -- Shin, Namchul -- Thompson, Cheryl A -- Winter, Susan -- Zaslavsky, Ilya -- Allison, M Lee -- Arctur, David -- Arrigo, Jennifer -- Aufdenkampe, Anthony K -- Bass, Jay -- Crowell, Jim -- Daniels, Mike -- Diggs, Stephen -- Duffy, Christopher -- Gil, Yolanda -- Gomez, Basil -- Graves, Sara -- Hazen, Robert -- Hsu, Leslie -- Kinkade, Danie -- Lehnert, Kerstin -- Marone, Chris -- Middleton, Don -- Noren, Anders -- Pearthree, Genevieve -- Ramamurthy, Mohan -- Robinson, Erin -- Percivall, George -- Richard, Stephen -- Suarez, Celina -- Walker, Doug -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Nov 29;342(6162):1041-2. doi: 10.1126/science.342.6162.1041-b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Labor and Employment Relations, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24288316" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Access to Information ; Periodicals as Topic/*economics ; Research/*economics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 397 (1999), S. 338-341 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] During the Arctic polar springtime, dramatic ozone losses occur not only in the stratosphere but also in the underlying troposphere. These tropospheric ozone loss events have been observed over large areas, in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) throughout the Arctic. They are associated with ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 246 (1973), S. 129-133 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Nitrogen dioxide and its related compounds react strongly with ozone, usually resulting in the destruction of the ozone, and life seems to be delicately adjusted to the radiation shield which the stratospheric ozone provides. We have found that atmospheric NO2 occurs in two layers, ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: radiative transfer ; non-Lambertian surface ; ocean ; cloud ; photolysis ; chemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract We have developed models of physically-based cloud and ocean surfacesfor use in photochemical models. These surface models are described in termsof a flux albedo and a normalized reflection function.Through these, the dependence of albedo on wavelength, solar zenithangle, cloud optical depth (cloud surfaces) and surface windspeed (ocean surfaces) are allowed for. In addition, the non-Lambertian nature of these surfaces is accounted for.We have integrated these surfacemodels into a multiple scattering radiative transfer model to assess their effects on the stratospheric radiation field and J-values. This was accomplished by comparison with results obtainedusing Lambertian, constant albedo surfaces. Comparisons of stratospheric radiation fields revealed that boththe wavelength and directional dependences of the cloud and oceansurfaces could be large effects.Differences between calculated J-values varied from 0 to 12% depending upon species, solar zenith angle, andheight.The J-values were then used as input for a chemical box model to examine the effects these surfaces had on stratospheric chemistry. Comparisons were made against box model runs using J-values fromconstant surfaces. Overall, the effect was on the order of 10%.Differences in number densities using these different surfacesvaried with latitude, height and species.Runs were made with and without heterogeneous chemistry.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: ozone ; NO2 ; UV visible
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract In June 1996, 16 UV-visible sensors from 11 institutes measured spectra of the zenith sky for more than 10 days. Spectra were analysed in real-time to determine slant column amounts of O3 and NO2. Spectra of Hg lamps and lasers were measured, and the amount of NO2 in a cell was determined by each spectrometer. Some spectra were re-analysed after obvious errors were found. Slant columns were compared in two ways: by examining regression analyses against comparison instruments over the whole range of solar zenith angles; and by taking fractional differences from a comparison instrument at solar zenith angles between 85° and 91°. Regression identified which pairs of instruments were most consistent, and so which could be used as universal comparison instruments. For O3, regression slopes for the whole campaign agreed within 5% for most instruments despite the use of different cross-sections and wavelength intervals, whereas similar agreement was only achieved for NO2 when the same cross-sections and wavelength intervals were used and only one half-day's data was analysed. Mean fractional differences in NO2 from a comparison instrument fall within ±7% (1-sigma) for most instruments, with standard deviations of the mean differences averaging 4.5%. Mean differences in O3 fall within ±2.5% (1- sigma) for most instruments, with standard deviations of the mean differences averaging 2%. Measurements of NO2 in the cell had similar agreement to measurements of NO2 in the atmosphere, but for some instruments measurements with cell and atmosphere relative to a comparison instrument disagreed by more than the error bars.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: NO ; NO2 ; intercomparison ; remote ; balloon ; stratosphere
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract During the 1982 and 1983 Balloon Intercomparison Campaigns, the vertical profile of stratospheric NO2 was measured remotely by nine instruments and that of NO by two. Total overhead columns were measured by two more instruments. Between 30 and 35km, where measurements overlapped, agreement between NO profiles was within ±30%, which is better than the accuracies claimed by the experimenters. Between 35 and 40km there was similarly good agreement between NO2 profiles, but below 30km, differences of greater than a factor three were found. In the second Campaign, NO2 values from most instruments agreed within their quoted errors, except that the Oxford radiometer gave much lower values; but the first Campaign and the column measurements show a more uniform spread of results. These differences below 30km could not be resolved, but new laboratory measurements are planned which should do so.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1438-1435
    Keywords: Key words Home teleradiology – Resident supervision – Subspecialist teleconsultations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Study objective: To determine whether teleconsultations by first-year radiology residents with faculty thoracic radiologists, using diagnostic-quality teleradiology workstations in the radiologists' homes, would add clinical value for the acute management of intensive care unit patients after regular working hours. Design and setting: First-year radiology residents recorded key findings on new computed chest radiographs from 173 cardiothoracic intensive care unit patients. After consulting with home-based thoracic radiologists on the same images via teleradiology, they recorded any revisions to their original interpretations. An interdisciplinary evaluation panel determined whether the revisions of the residents' initial readings after the teleradiology consultations would have influenced the acute clinical care of these patients. Measurements and results: In 119 of the 173 cases (69 %), differences in key findings on the chest images were observed between the first-year residents' preliminary readings and their revised readings after teleconsultation with a thoracic radiologist. The evaluation panel determined that the changes in key findings after the teleconsultations could have influenced acute patient care in 86 of the 173 cases (50 %). Conclusions: Through rapid teleradiology consultations with residents, focusing on the key findings on newly-obtained computed chest images, home-based thoracic radiologists provided information of added clinical value for the acute management of cardiothoracic intensive care unit patients in one-half of the cases studied. Diagnostic workstations in the homes of faculty subspecialists may enable first-year radiology residents on night or weekend duty to obtain clinical supervision from faculty subspecialists that approximates more closely the level of supervision that they receive during regular working hours.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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