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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-27
    Description: Retrieving high-content gene-expression information while retaining three-dimensional (3D) positional anatomy at cellular resolution has been difficult, limiting integrative understanding of structure and function in complex biological tissues. We developed and applied a technology for 3D intact-tissue RNA sequencing, termed STARmap (spatially-resolved transcript amplicon readout mapping), which integrates hydrogel-tissue chemistry, targeted signal amplification, and in situ sequencing. The capabilities of STARmap were tested by mapping 160 to 1020 genes simultaneously in sections of mouse brain at single-cell resolution with high efficiency, accuracy, and reproducibility. Moving to thick tissue blocks, we observed a molecularly defined gradient distribution of excitatory-neuron subtypes across cubic millimeter–scale volumes (〉30,000 cells) and a short-range 3D self-clustering in many inhibitory-neuron subtypes that could be identified and described with 3D STARmap.
    Keywords: Molecular Biology, Neuroscience, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-10-06
    Description: Top-down prefrontal cortex inputs to the hippocampus have been hypothesized to be important in memory consolidation, retrieval, and the pathophysiology of major psychiatric diseases; however, no such direct projections have been identified and functionally described. Here we report the discovery of a monosynaptic prefrontal cortex (predominantly anterior cingulate) to hippocampus (CA3 to CA1 region) projection in mice, and find that optogenetic manipulation of this projection (here termed AC-CA) is capable of eliciting contextual memory retrieval. To explore the network mechanisms of this process, we developed and applied tools to observe cellular-resolution neural activity in the hippocampus while stimulating AC-CA projections during memory retrieval in mice behaving in virtual-reality environments. Using this approach, we found that learning drives the emergence of a sparse class of neurons in CA2/CA3 that are highly correlated with the local network and that lead synchronous population activity events; these neurons are then preferentially recruited by the AC-CA projection during memory retrieval. These findings reveal a sparsely implemented memory retrieval mechanism in the hippocampus that operates via direct top-down prefrontal input, with implications for the patterning and storage of salient memory representations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rajasethupathy, Priyamvada -- Sankaran, Sethuraman -- Marshel, James H -- Kim, Christina K -- Ferenczi, Emily -- Lee, Soo Yeun -- Berndt, Andre -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Jaffe, Anna -- Lo, Maisie -- Liston, Conor -- Deisseroth, Karl -- R00 MH097822/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 29;526(7575):653-9. doi: 10.1038/nature15389. Epub 2015 Oct 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; CNC Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Neuroscience Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26436451" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-07-29
    Description: Severe behavioural deficits in psychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia have been hypothesized to arise from elevations in the cellular balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I balance) within neural microcircuitry. This hypothesis could unify diverse streams of pathophysiological and genetic evidence, but has not been susceptible to direct testing. Here we design and use several novel optogenetic tools to causally investigate the cellular E/I balance hypothesis in freely moving mammals, and explore the associated circuit physiology. Elevation, but not reduction, of cellular E/I balance within the mouse medial prefrontal cortex was found to elicit a profound impairment in cellular information processing, associated with specific behavioural impairments and increased high-frequency power in the 30-80 Hz range, which have both been observed in clinical conditions in humans. Consistent with the E/I balance hypothesis, compensatory elevation of inhibitory cell excitability partially rescued social deficits caused by E/I balance elevation. These results provide support for the elevated cellular E/I balance hypothesis of severe neuropsychiatric disease-related symptoms.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155501/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155501/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yizhar, Ofer -- Fenno, Lief E -- Prigge, Matthias -- Schneider, Franziska -- Davidson, Thomas J -- O'Shea, Daniel J -- Sohal, Vikaas S -- Goshen, Inbal -- Finkelstein, Joel -- Paz, Jeanne T -- Stehfest, Katja -- Fudim, Roman -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Huguenard, John R -- Hegemann, Peter -- Deisseroth, Karl -- DP1 OD000616/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH075957/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH086373/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS006477/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS034774/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jul 27;477(7363):171-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10360.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA. ofer.yizhar@weizmann.ac.il〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796121" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autistic Disorder/physiopathology ; Disease Models, Animal ; HEK293 Cells ; Hippocampus/cytology ; Humans ; Learning ; Mental Disorders/physiopathology ; Mice ; *Models, Neurological ; Motor Activity ; Neural Inhibition/*physiology ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Opsins/metabolism ; Prefrontal Cortex/*physiology/*physiopathology ; Schizophrenia/physiopathology ; *Social Behavior
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-04-12
    Description: Obtaining high-resolution information from a complex system, while maintaining the global perspective needed to understand system function, represents a key challenge in biology. Here we address this challenge with a method (termed CLARITY) for the transformation of intact tissue into a nanoporous hydrogel-hybridized form (crosslinked to a three-dimensional network of hydrophilic polymers) that is fully assembled but optically transparent and macromolecule-permeable. Using mouse brains, we show intact-tissue imaging of long-range projections, local circuit wiring, cellular relationships, subcellular structures, protein complexes, nucleic acids and neurotransmitters. CLARITY also enables intact-tissue in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry with multiple rounds of staining and de-staining in non-sectioned tissue, and antibody labelling throughout the intact adult mouse brain. Finally, we show that CLARITY enables fine structural analysis of clinical samples, including non-sectioned human tissue from a neuropsychiatric-disease setting, establishing a path for the transmutation of human tissue into a stable, intact and accessible form suitable for probing structural and molecular underpinnings of physiological function and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092167/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092167/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chung, Kwanghun -- Wallace, Jenelle -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Kalyanasundaram, Sandhiya -- Andalman, Aaron S -- Davidson, Thomas J -- Mirzabekov, Julie J -- Zalocusky, Kelly A -- Mattis, Joanna -- Denisin, Aleksandra K -- Pak, Sally -- Bernstein, Hannah -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Grosenick, Logan -- Gradinaru, Viviana -- Deisseroth, Karl -- DP1 OD000616/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA020794/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH099647/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 16;497(7449):332-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12107. Epub 2013 Apr 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23575631" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*anatomy & histology ; Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry ; Formaldehyde/chemistry ; Humans ; Hydrogel/chemistry ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/*methods ; In Situ Hybridization/methods ; Lipids/isolation & purification ; Mice ; Molecular Imaging/*methods ; Permeability ; Phenotype ; Scattering, Radiation
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: Inflammation resolution counterbalances excessive inflammation and restores tissue homeostasis after injury. Failure of resolution contributes to the pathology of numerous chronic inflammatory diseases. Resolution is mediated by endogenous specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs), which are derived from long-chain fatty acids by lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes. 5-LOX plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of two classes of SPMs: lipoxins and resolvins. Cytoplasmic localization of the nonphosphorylated form of 5-LOX is essential for SPM biosynthesis, whereas nuclear localization of phosphorylated 5-LOX promotes proinflammatory leukotriene production. We previously showed that MerTK, an efferocytosis receptor on macrophages, promotes SPM biosynthesis by increasing the abundance of nonphosphorylated, cytoplasmic 5-LOX. We now show that activation of MerTK in human macrophages led to ERK-mediated expression of the gene encoding sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2), which decreased the cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration and suppressed the activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). This, in turn, reduced the activities of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and the kinase MK2, resulting in the increased abundance of the nonphosphorylated, cytoplasmic form of 5-LOX and enhanced SPM biosynthesis. In a zymosan-induced peritonitis model, an inflammatory setting in which macrophage MerTK activation promotes resolution, inhibition of ERK activation delayed resolution, which was characterized by an increased number of neutrophils and decreased amounts of SPMs in tissue exudates. These findings contribute to our understanding of how MerTK signaling induces 5-LOX–derived SPM biosynthesis and suggest a therapeutic strategy to boost inflammation resolution in settings where defective resolution promotes disease progression.
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-03-11
    Description: Anxiety--a sustained state of heightened apprehension in the absence of immediate threat--becomes severely debilitating in disease states. Anxiety disorders represent the most common of psychiatric diseases (28% lifetime prevalence) and contribute to the aetiology of major depression and substance abuse. Although it has been proposed that the amygdala, a brain region important for emotional processing, has a role in anxiety, the neural mechanisms that control anxiety remain unclear. Here we explore the neural circuits underlying anxiety-related behaviours by using optogenetics with two-photon microscopy, anxiety assays in freely moving mice, and electrophysiology. With the capability of optogenetics to control not only cell types but also specific connections between cells, we observed that temporally precise optogenetic stimulation of basolateral amygdala (BLA) terminals in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA)--achieved by viral transduction of the BLA with a codon-optimized channelrhodopsin followed by restricted illumination in the downstream CeA--exerted an acute, reversible anxiolytic effect. Conversely, selective optogenetic inhibition of the same projection with a third-generation halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0) increased anxiety-related behaviours. Importantly, these effects were not observed with direct optogenetic control of BLA somata, possibly owing to recruitment of antagonistic downstream structures. Together, these results implicate specific BLA-CeA projections as critical circuit elements for acute anxiety control in the mammalian brain, and demonstrate the importance of optogenetically targeting defined projections, beyond simply targeting cell types, in the study of circuit function relevant to neuropsychiatric disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3154022/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3154022/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tye, Kay M -- Prakash, Rohit -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Fenno, Lief E -- Grosenick, Logan -- Zarabi, Hosniya -- Thompson, Kimberly R -- Gradinaru, Viviana -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Deisseroth, Karl -- 1F32MH088010-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000616/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000616-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA020794/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA020794-01/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH075957/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH075957-01A2/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 17;471(7338):358-62. doi: 10.1038/nature09820. Epub 2011 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21389985" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/cytology/*physiology/radiation effects ; Animals ; Anxiety/*physiopathology ; Anxiety Disorders/physiopathology ; Halorhodopsins/metabolism ; Light ; Mice ; Models, Neurological ; Neural Pathways/physiology/radiation effects ; Neurons/physiology/radiation effects ; Stress, Physiological/physiology ; Synapses/physiology/radiation effects
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-01-24
    Description: Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are light-gated cation channels derived from algae that have shown experimental utility in optogenetics; for example, neurons expressing ChRs can be optically controlled with high temporal precision within systems as complex as freely moving mammals. Although ChRs have been broadly applied to neuroscience research, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which these unusual and powerful proteins operate. Here we present the crystal structure of a ChR (a C1C2 chimaera between ChR1 and ChR2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) at 2.3 A resolution. The structure reveals the essential molecular architecture of ChRs, including the retinal-binding pocket and cation conduction pathway. This integration of structural and electrophysiological analyses provides insight into the molecular basis for the remarkable function of ChRs, and paves the way for the precise and principled design of ChR variants with novel properties.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4160518/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4160518/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kato, Hideaki E -- Zhang, Feng -- Yizhar, Ofer -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Nishizawa, Tomohiro -- Hirata, Kunio -- Ito, Jumpei -- Aita, Yusuke -- Tsukazaki, Tomoya -- Hayashi, Shigehiko -- Hegemann, Peter -- Maturana, Andres D -- Ishitani, Ryuichiro -- Deisseroth, Karl -- Nureki, Osamu -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 22;482(7385):369-74. doi: 10.1038/nature10870.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22266941" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteriorhodopsins/chemistry ; Binding Sites ; Cations/*metabolism ; Cattle ; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/*chemistry/genetics ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Ion Channel Gating/*radiation effects ; Ion Channels/*chemistry/genetics/radiation effects ; *Light ; Models, Molecular ; Mutation ; Protein Conformation ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry/genetics/radiation effects ; Retinaldehyde/metabolism ; Rhodopsin/*chemistry/genetics/radiation effects ; Schiff Bases/chemistry ; Static Electricity
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: A marked bias towards risk aversion has been observed in nearly every species tested. A minority of individuals, however, instead seem to prefer risk (repeatedly choosing uncertain large rewards over certain but smaller rewards), and even risk-averse individuals sometimes opt for riskier alternatives. It is not known how neural activity underlies such important shifts in decision-making--either as a stable trait across individuals or at the level of variability within individuals. Here we describe a model of risk-preference in rats, in which stable individual differences, trial-by-trial choices, and responses to pharmacological agents all parallel human behaviour. By combining new genetic targeting strategies with optical recording of neural activity during behaviour in this model, we identify relevant temporally specific signals from a genetically and anatomically defined population of neurons. This activity occurred within dopamine receptor type-2 (D2R)-expressing cells in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), signalled unfavourable outcomes from the recent past at a time appropriate for influencing subsequent decisions, and also predicted subsequent choices made. Having uncovered this naturally occurring neural correlate of risk selection, we then mimicked the temporally specific signal with optogenetic control during decision-making and demonstrated its causal effect in driving risk-preference. Specifically, risk-preferring rats could be instantaneously converted to risk-averse rats with precisely timed phasic stimulation of NAc D2R cells. These findings suggest that individual differences in risk-preference, as well as real-time risky decision-making, can be largely explained by the encoding in D2R-expressing NAc cells of prior unfavourable outcomes during decision-making.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zalocusky, Kelly A -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Lerner, Talia N -- Davidson, Thomas J -- Knutson, Brian -- Deisseroth, Karl -- 1F31MH105151-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- 1F32MH105053-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):642-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17400. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Bioengineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; CNC Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Psychology Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007845" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Choice Behavior ; *Decision Making ; Humans ; Individuality ; Male ; Models, Animal ; Models, Neurological ; Models, Psychological ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Nucleus Accumbens/*cytology/*metabolism ; Rats ; Rats, Long-Evans ; Receptors, Dopamine D2/*metabolism ; Reward ; *Risk Management ; Signal Transduction ; Uncertainty
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Motivation for reward drives adaptive behaviors, whereas impairment of reward perception and experience (anhedonia) can contribute to psychiatric diseases, including depression and schizophrenia. We sought to test the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) controls interactions among specific subcortical regions that govern hedonic responses. By using optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging to locally manipulate but globally visualize neural activity in rats, we found that dopamine neuron stimulation drives striatal activity, whereas locally increased mPFC excitability reduces this striatal response and inhibits the behavioral drive for dopaminergic stimulation. This chronic mPFC overactivity also stably suppresses natural reward-motivated behaviors and induces specific new brainwide functional interactions, which predict the degree of anhedonia in individuals. These findings describe a mechanism by which mPFC modulates expression of reward-seeking behavior, by regulating the dynamical interactions between specific distant subcortical regions.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772156/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772156/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ferenczi, Emily A -- Zalocusky, Kelly A -- Liston, Conor -- Grosenick, Logan -- Warden, Melissa R -- Amatya, Debha -- Katovich, Kiefer -- Mehta, Hershel -- Patenaude, Brian -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Kalanithi, Paul -- Etkin, Amit -- Knutson, Brian -- Glover, Gary H -- Deisseroth, Karl -- 1F31MH105151_01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- P41 EB015891/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- R00 MH097822/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):aac9698. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9698.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Brain Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. ; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. ; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. deissero@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26722001" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anhedonia/*physiology ; Animals ; Brain Mapping ; Corpus Striatum/cytology/drug effects/*physiology ; Depressive Disorder/physiopathology ; Dopamine/pharmacology ; Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects/*physiology ; Female ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Mesencephalon/cytology/drug effects/physiology ; *Motivation ; Nerve Net/physiology ; Oxygen/blood ; Prefrontal Cortex/cytology/drug effects/*physiology ; Rats ; Rats, Inbred LEC ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; *Reward ; Schizophrenia/physiopathology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-04-26
    Description: Using light to silence electrical activity in targeted cells is a major goal of optogenetics. Available optogenetic proteins that directly move ions to achieve silencing are inefficient, pumping only a single ion per photon across the cell membrane rather than allowing many ions per photon to flow through a channel pore. Building on high-resolution crystal-structure analysis, pore vestibule modeling, and structure-guided protein engineering, we designed and characterized a class of channelrhodopsins (originally cation-conducting) converted into chloride-conducting anion channels. These tools enable fast optical inhibition of action potentials and can be engineered to display step-function kinetics for stable inhibition, outlasting light pulses and for orders-of-magnitude-greater light sensitivity of inhibited cells. The resulting family of proteins defines an approach to more physiological, efficient, and sensitive optogenetic inhibition.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4096039/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4096039/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Berndt, Andre -- Lee, Soo Yeun -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Deisseroth, Karl -- R01 DA020794/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH075957/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH086373/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 25;344(6182):420-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1252367.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24763591" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; CA1 Region, Hippocampal/cytology ; CA3 Region, Hippocampal/cytology ; Chloride Channels/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Chlorides/*metabolism ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Light ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis, Site-Directed ; Neurons/*physiology ; Optogenetics ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Protein Engineering ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Rhodopsin/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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