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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-11-14
    Description: Female mosquitoes are major vectors of human disease and the most dangerous are those that preferentially bite humans. A 'domestic' form of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has evolved to specialize in biting humans and is the main worldwide vector of dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses. The domestic form coexists with an ancestral, 'forest' form that prefers to bite non-human animals and is found along the coast of Kenya. We collected the two forms, established laboratory colonies, and document striking divergence in preference for human versus non-human animal odour. We further show that the evolution of preference for human odour in domestic mosquitoes is tightly linked to increases in the expression and ligand-sensitivity of the odorant receptor AaegOr4, which we found recognizes a compound present at high levels in human odour. Our results provide a rare example of a gene contributing to behavioural evolution and provide insight into how disease-vectoring mosquitoes came to specialize on humans.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4286346/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4286346/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McBride, Carolyn S -- Baier, Felix -- Omondi, Aman B -- Spitzer, Sarabeth A -- Lutomiah, Joel -- Sang, Rosemary -- Ignell, Rickard -- Vosshall, Leslie B -- 5UL1TR000043/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272200900039C/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272200900039C/PHS HHS/ -- K99 DC012069/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R00 DC012069/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000043/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 13;515(7526):222-7. doi: 10.1038/nature13964.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Unit of Chemical Ecology, Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 102, Sundsvagen 14, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden. ; Center for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, PO Box 54840 - 00200, Off Mbagathi Way, Nairobi, Kenya.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25391959" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/*physiology ; Alleles ; Animals ; Arthropod Antennae/metabolism ; *Biological Evolution ; Female ; Forests ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Host Specificity ; Humans ; Ketones/analysis/metabolism ; Ligands ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Receptors, Odorant/*metabolism ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-05-31
    Description: Female mosquitoes of some species are generalists and will blood-feed on a variety of vertebrate hosts, whereas others display marked host preference. Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti have evolved a strong preference for humans, making them dangerously efficient vectors of malaria and Dengue haemorrhagic fever. Specific host odours probably drive this strong preference because other attractive cues, including body heat and exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2), are common to all warm-blooded hosts. Insects sense odours via several chemosensory receptor families, including the odorant receptors (ORs), membrane proteins that form heteromeric odour-gated ion channels comprising a variable ligand-selective subunit and an obligate co-receptor called Orco (ref. 6). Here we use zinc-finger nucleases to generate targeted mutations in the orco gene of A. aegypti to examine the contribution of Orco and the odorant receptor pathway to mosquito host selection and sensitivity to the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). orco mutant olfactory sensory neurons have greatly reduced spontaneous activity and lack odour-evoked responses. Behaviourally, orco mutant mosquitoes have severely reduced attraction to honey, an odour cue related to floral nectar, and do not respond to human scent in the absence of CO2. However, in the presence of CO2, female orco mutant mosquitoes retain strong attraction to both human and animal hosts, but no longer strongly prefer humans. orco mutant females are attracted to human hosts even in the presence of DEET, but are repelled upon contact, indicating that olfactory- and contact-mediated effects of DEET are mechanistically distinct. We conclude that the odorant receptor pathway is crucial for an anthropophilic vector mosquito to discriminate human from non-human hosts and to be effectively repelled by volatile DEET.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3696029/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3696029/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉DeGennaro, Matthew -- McBride, Carolyn S -- Seeholzer, Laura -- Nakagawa, Takao -- Dennis, Emily J -- Goldman, Chloe -- Jasinskiene, Nijole -- James, Anthony A -- Vosshall, Leslie B -- AI29746/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DC012069/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI029746/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI029746/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jun 27;498(7455):487-91. doi: 10.1038/nature12206. Epub 2013 May 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23719379" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/drug effects/*genetics/*physiology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; DEET/administration & dosage/*pharmacology ; Drug Resistance/drug effects ; Female ; Genes, Insect/*genetics ; Honey ; Host Specificity/drug effects/*genetics ; Humans ; Insect Repellents/administration & dosage/*pharmacology ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis, Site-Directed ; Mutation/*genetics ; Neurons/cytology/drug effects ; Odors/analysis ; Olfactory Pathways/cytology/drug effects ; Volatilization
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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