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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-04-13
    Description: Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate magnetosensation in vertebrates is a formidable scientific problem. One hypothesis is that magnetic information is transduced into neuronal impulses by using a magnetite-based magnetoreceptor. Previous studies claim to have identified a magnetic sense system in the pigeon, common to avian species, which consists of magnetite-containing trigeminal afferents located at six specific loci in the rostral subepidermis of the beak. These studies have been widely accepted in the field and heavily relied upon by both behavioural biologists and physicists. Here we show that clusters of iron-rich cells in the rostro-medial upper beak of the pigeon Columbia livia are macrophages, not magnetosensitive neurons. Our systematic characterization of the pigeon upper beak identified iron-rich cells in the stratum laxum of the subepidermis, the basal region of the respiratory epithelium and the apex of feather follicles. Using a three-dimensional blueprint of the pigeon beak created by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, we mapped the location of iron-rich cells, revealing unexpected variation in their distribution and number--an observation that is inconsistent with a role in magnetic sensation. Ultrastructure analysis of these cells, which are not unique to the beak, showed that their subcellular architecture includes ferritin-like granules, siderosomes, haemosiderin and filopodia, characteristics of iron-rich macrophages. Our conclusion that these cells are macrophages and not magnetosensitive neurons is supported by immunohistological studies showing co-localization with the antigen-presenting molecule major histocompatibility complex class II. Our work necessitates a renewed search for the true magnetite-dependent magnetoreceptor in birds.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Treiber, Christoph Daniel -- Salzer, Marion Claudia -- Riegler, Johannes -- Edelman, Nathaniel -- Sugar, Cristina -- Breuss, Martin -- Pichler, Paul -- Cadiou, Herve -- Saunders, Martin -- Lythgoe, Mark -- Shaw, Jeremy -- Keays, David Anthony -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 11;484(7394):367-70. doi: 10.1038/nature11046.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr-Gasse, 1030 Vienna, Austria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22495303" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Migration ; Animals ; Beak/anatomy & histology/*cytology ; Columbidae/*anatomy & histology/physiology ; Feathers/cytology/ultrastructure ; Ferrocyanides/analysis ; Immunohistochemistry ; Iron/analysis/*metabolism ; Macrophages/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; *Magnetic Fields ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Neurons/metabolism ; Orientation ; Respiratory Mucosa/cytology/ultrastructure ; *Sensation ; Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objectives and background:  Members of the herpesvirus family have accumulated considerable support for a role in severe types of periodontitis. This study aimed to examine whether human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein–Barr virus type 1 (EBV-1) or herpes simplex virus (HSV) together with the major periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis might interact in the pathogenesis of periodontal breakdown.Methods:  Sixteen subjects each contributed paper point samples from two progressing and two stable periodontitis lesions, as determined by ongoing loss of probing attachment. Polymerase chain reaction methodology was used to identify subgingival herpesviruses, P. gingivalis and other bacterial pathogens. Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression were employed to identify statistical associations between herpesviruses, periodontopathic bacteria and clinical variables.Results:  HCMV and HSV were both significant predictors of the presence of subgingival P. gingivalis. In turn, P. gingivalis was positively associated with periodontitis active disease, probing attachment level, probing pocket depth, gingival bleeding upon probing and patient age. EBV-1 was not linked to P. gingivalis, although the virus was predictive of periodontitis active disease. The periodontitis disease risk associated with herpesvirus–P. gingivalis combinations depended on both site-specific and subject-specific factors.Conclusion:  The present data of aggressive periodontitis implicate HCMV, HSV and P. gingivalis as either cofactors in its etiology or triggers of relapses. Further studies are needed to determine the spectrum of periodontopathogenicity of herpesviruses and effective management of these viruses in periodontal sites.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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