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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-05-15
    Description: Vesta's surface is characterized by abundant impact craters, some with preserved ejecta blankets, large troughs extending around the equatorial region, enigmatic dark material, and widespread mass wasting, but as yet an absence of volcanic features. Abundant steep slopes indicate that impact-generated surface regolith is underlain by bedrock. Dawn observations confirm the large impact basin (Rheasilvia) at Vesta's south pole and reveal evidence for an earlier, underlying large basin (Veneneia). Vesta's geology displays morphological features characteristic of the Moon and terrestrial planets as well as those of other asteroids, underscoring Vesta's unique role as a transitional solar system body.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jaumann, R -- Williams, D A -- Buczkowski, D L -- Yingst, R A -- Preusker, F -- Hiesinger, H -- Schmedemann, N -- Kneissl, T -- Vincent, J B -- Blewett, D T -- Buratti, B J -- Carsenty, U -- Denevi, B W -- De Sanctis, M C -- Garry, W B -- Keller, H U -- Kersten, E -- Krohn, K -- Li, J-Y -- Marchi, S -- Matz, K D -- McCord, T B -- McSween, H Y -- Mest, S C -- Mittlefehldt, D W -- Mottola, S -- Nathues, A -- Neukum, G -- O'Brien, D P -- Pieters, C M -- Prettyman, T H -- Raymond, C A -- Roatsch, T -- Russell, C T -- Schenk, P -- Schmidt, B E -- Scholten, F -- Stephan, K -- Sykes, M V -- Tricarico, P -- Wagner, R -- Zuber, M T -- Sierks, H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 11;336(6082):687-90. doi: 10.1126/science.1219122.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉German Aerospace Center, Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin, Germany. ralf.jaumann@dlr.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582254" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-05-15
    Description: Vesta is a large differentiated rocky body in the main asteroid belt that accreted within the first few million years after the formation of the earliest solar system solids. The Dawn spacecraft extensively imaged Vesta's surface, revealing a collision-dominated history. Results show that Vesta's cratering record has a strong north-south dichotomy. Vesta's northern heavily cratered terrains retain much of their earliest history. The southern hemisphere was reset, however, by two major collisions in more recent times. We estimate that the youngest of these impact structures, about 500 kilometers across, formed about 1 billion years ago, in agreement with estimates of Vesta asteroid family age based on dynamical and collisional constraints, supporting the notion that the Vesta asteroid family was formed during this event.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Marchi, S -- McSween, H Y -- O'Brien, D P -- Schenk, P -- De Sanctis, M C -- Gaskell, R -- Jaumann, R -- Mottola, S -- Preusker, F -- Raymond, C A -- Roatsch, T -- Russell, C T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 11;336(6082):690-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1218757.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉NASA Lunar Science Institute, Boulder, CO, USA. marchi@boulder.swri.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582255" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, during the second of its Deep Dip campaigns, made comprehensive measurements of martian thermosphere and ionosphere composition, structure, and variability at altitudes down to ~130 kilometers in the subsolar region. This altitude range contains the diffusively separated upper atmosphere just above the well-mixed atmosphere, the layer of peak extreme ultraviolet heating and primary reservoir for atmospheric escape. In situ measurements of the upper atmosphere reveal previously unmeasured populations of neutral and charged particles, the homopause altitude at approximately 130 kilometers, and an unexpected level of variability both on an orbit-to-orbit basis and within individual orbits. These observations help constrain volatile escape processes controlled by thermosphere and ionosphere structure and variability.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bougher, S -- Jakosky, B -- Halekas, J -- Grebowsky, J -- Luhmann, J -- Mahaffy, P -- Connerney, J -- Eparvier, F -- Ergun, R -- Larson, D -- McFadden, J -- Mitchell, D -- Schneider, N -- Zurek, R -- Mazelle, C -- Andersson, L -- Andrews, D -- Baird, D -- Baker, D N -- Bell, J M -- Benna, M -- Brain, D -- Chaffin, M -- Chamberlin, P -- Chaufray, J-Y -- Clarke, J -- Collinson, G -- Combi, M -- Crary, F -- Cravens, T -- Crismani, M -- Curry, S -- Curtis, D -- Deighan, J -- Delory, G -- Dewey, R -- DiBraccio, G -- Dong, C -- Dong, Y -- Dunn, P -- Elrod, M -- England, S -- Eriksson, A -- Espley, J -- Evans, S -- Fang, X -- Fillingim, M -- Fortier, K -- Fowler, C M -- Fox, J -- Groller, H -- Guzewich, S -- Hara, T -- Harada, Y -- Holsclaw, G -- Jain, S K -- Jolitz, R -- Leblanc, F -- Lee, C O -- Lee, Y -- Lefevre, F -- Lillis, R -- Livi, R -- Lo, D -- Ma, Y -- Mayyasi, M -- McClintock, W -- McEnulty, T -- Modolo, R -- Montmessin, F -- Morooka, M -- Nagy, A -- Olsen, K -- Peterson, W -- Rahmati, A -- Ruhunusiri, S -- Russell, C T -- Sakai, S -- Sauvaud, J-A -- Seki, K -- Steckiewicz, M -- Stevens, M -- Stewart, A I F -- Stiepen, A -- Stone, S -- Tenishev, V -- Thiemann, E -- Tolson, R -- Toublanc, D -- Vogt, M -- Weber, T -- Withers, P -- Woods, T -- Yelle, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 6;350(6261):aad0459. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0459.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CLaSP Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. bougher@umich.edu. ; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University. of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. ; NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. ; Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. ; CNRS/Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse, France. University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. ; Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden. ; NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA. ; National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA, USA. ; Laboratoire Atmospheres, Milieux, Observations Spatiales /CNRS, Verrieres-le-Buisson, France. ; Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. ; CLaSP Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA. ; Computational Physics, Springfield, VA, USA. ; Department of Physics, Wright State University, Fairborn, OH, USA. ; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA. ; Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ; Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan. ; Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542579" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: Coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere, combined with loss of gas from the upper atmosphere to space, likely contributed to the thin, cold, dry atmosphere of modern Mars. To help understand ongoing ion loss to space, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft made comprehensive measurements of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during an interplanetary coronal mass ejection impact in March 2015. Responses include changes in the bow shock and magnetosheath, formation of widespread diffuse aurora, and enhancement of pick-up ions. Observations and models both show an enhancement in escape rate of ions to space during the event. Ion loss during solar events early in Mars history may have been a major contributor to the long-term evolution of the Mars atmosphere.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jakosky, B M -- Grebowsky, J M -- Luhmann, J G -- Connerney, J -- Eparvier, F -- Ergun, R -- Halekas, J -- Larson, D -- Mahaffy, P -- McFadden, J -- Mitchell, D F -- Schneider, N -- Zurek, R -- Bougher, S -- Brain, D -- Ma, Y J -- Mazelle, C -- Andersson, L -- Andrews, D -- Baird, D -- Baker, D -- Bell, J M -- Benna, M -- Chaffin, M -- Chamberlin, P -- Chaufray, Y-Y -- Clarke, J -- Collinson, G -- Combi, M -- Crary, F -- Cravens, T -- Crismani, M -- Curry, S -- Curtis, D -- Deighan, J -- Delory, G -- Dewey, R -- DiBraccio, G -- Dong, C -- Dong, Y -- Dunn, P -- Elrod, M -- England, S -- Eriksson, A -- Espley, J -- Evans, S -- Fang, X -- Fillingim, M -- Fortier, K -- Fowler, C M -- Fox, J -- Groller, H -- Guzewich, S -- Hara, T -- Harada, Y -- Holsclaw, G -- Jain, S K -- Jolitz, R -- Leblanc, F -- Lee, C O -- Lee, Y -- Lefevre, F -- Lillis, R -- Livi, R -- Lo, D -- Mayyasi, M -- McClintock, W -- McEnulty, T -- Modolo, R -- Montmessin, F -- Morooka, M -- Nagy, A -- Olsen, K -- Peterson, W -- Rahmati, A -- Ruhunusiri, S -- Russell, C T -- Sakai, S -- Sauvaud, J-A -- Seki, K -- Steckiewicz, M -- Stevens, M -- Stewart, A I F -- Stiepen, A -- Stone, S -- Tenishev, V -- Thiemann, E -- Tolson, R -- Toublanc, D -- Vogt, M -- Weber, T -- Withers, P -- Woods, T -- Yelle, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 6;350(6261):aad0210. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0210.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. bruce.jakosky@lasp.colorado.edu. ; NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. ; University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. ; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. ; University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. ; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ; University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ; CNRS-Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Toulouse, France. University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. ; Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden. ; NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA. ; National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA, USA. ; Laboratoire atmospheres, milieux et observations spatiales (LATMOS)-CNRS, Paris, France. ; Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. ; University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA. ; Computational Physics, Inc., Boulder, CO, USA. ; Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA. ; University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA. ; Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. ; Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA. ; North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542576" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-04-16
    Description: Knowledge of the magnetization of planetary bodies constrains their origin and evolution, as well as the conditions in the solar nebular at that time. On the basis of magnetic field measurements during the descent and subsequent multiple touchdown of the Rosetta lander Philae on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), we show that no global magnetic field was detected within the limitations of analysis. The Rosetta Magnetometer and Plasma Monitor (ROMAP) suite of sensors measured an upper magnetic field magnitude of less than 2 nanotesla at the cometary surface at multiple locations, with the upper specific magnetic moment being 〈3.1 x 10(-5) ampere-square meters per kilogram for meter-size homogeneous magnetized boulders. The maximum dipole moment of 67P is 1.6 x 10(8) ampere-square meters. We conclude that on the meter scale, magnetic alignment in the preplanetary nebula is of minor importance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Auster, Hans-Ulrich -- Apathy, Istvan -- Berghofer, Gerhard -- Fornacon, Karl-Heinz -- Remizov, Anatoli -- Carr, Chris -- Guttler, Carsten -- Haerendel, Gerhard -- Heinisch, Philip -- Hercik, David -- Hilchenbach, Martin -- Kuhrt, Ekkehard -- Magnes, Werner -- Motschmann, Uwe -- Richter, Ingo -- Russell, Christopher T -- Przyklenk, Anita -- Schwingenschuh, Konrad -- Sierks, Holger -- Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 31;349(6247):aaa5102. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5102. Epub 2015 Apr 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut fur Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstrasse 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany. uli.auster@tu-bs.de. ; Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Konkoly Thege Street 29-33, Budapest, Hungary. ; Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz, Austria. ; Institut fur Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstrasse 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany. ; Institut fur Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstrasse 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany. Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Profsoyuznaja Street 84/32, 117810 Moscow, Russia. ; Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; Max-Planck-Institut fur Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen. ; Max-Planck-Institute fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85741 Garching bei Munchen. ; German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, D-12489 Berlin, Rutherfordstrasse 2, Germany. ; German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, D-12489 Berlin, Rutherfordstrasse 2, Germany. Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstrasse 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany. ; Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567, USA. ; Institut fur Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstrasse 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany. Max-Planck-Institute fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85741 Garching bei Munchen.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25873744" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-11-07
    Description: The surface of the asteroid Vesta has prominent near-infrared absorption bands characteristic of a range of pyroxenes, confirming a direct link to the basaltic howardite-eucrite-diogenite class of meteorites. Processes active in the space environment produce 'space weathering' products that substantially weaken or mask such diagnostic absorption on airless bodies observed elsewhere, and it has long been a mystery why Vesta's absorption bands are so strong. Analyses of soil samples from both the Moon and the asteroid Itokawa determined that nanophase metallic particles (commonly nanophase iron) accumulate on the rims of regolith grains with time, accounting for an observed optical degradation. These nanophase particles, believed to be related to solar wind and micrometeoroid bombardment processes, leave unique spectroscopic signatures that can be measured remotely but require sufficient spatial resolution to discern the geologic context and history of the surface, which has not been achieved for Vesta until now. Here we report that Vesta shows its own form of space weathering, which is quite different from that of other airless bodies visited. No evidence is detected on Vesta for accumulation of lunar-like nanophase iron on regolith particles, even though distinct material exposed at several fresh craters becomes gradually masked and fades into the background as the craters age. Instead, spectroscopic data reveal that on Vesta a locally homogenized upper regolith is generated with time through small-scale mixing of diverse surface components.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pieters, C M -- Ammannito, E -- Blewett, D T -- Denevi, B W -- De Sanctis, M C -- Gaffey, M J -- Le Corre, L -- Li, J-Y -- Marchi, S -- McCord, T B -- McFadden, L A -- Mittlefehldt, D W -- Nathues, A -- Palmer, E -- Reddy, V -- Raymond, C A -- Russell, C T -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 1;491(7422):79-82. doi: 10.1038/nature11534.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA. carle_pieters@brown.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23128227" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-11-08
    Description: Olivine is a major component of the mantle of differentiated bodies, including Earth. Howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites represent regolith, basaltic-crust, lower-crust and possibly ultramafic-mantle samples of asteroid Vesta, which is the lone surviving, large, differentiated, basaltic rocky protoplanet in the Solar System. Only a few of these meteorites, the orthopyroxene-rich diogenites, contain olivine, typically with a concentration of less than 25 per cent by volume. Olivine was tentatively identified on Vesta, on the basis of spectral and colour data, but other observations did not confirm its presence. Here we report that olivine is indeed present locally on Vesta's surface but that, unexpectedly, it has not been found within the deep, south-pole basins, which are thought to be excavated mantle rocks. Instead, it occurs as near-surface materials in the northern hemisphere. Unlike the meteorites, the olivine-rich (more than 50 per cent by volume) material is not associated with diogenite but seems to be mixed with howardite, the most common surface material. Olivine is exposed in crater walls and in ejecta scattered diffusely over a broad area. The size of the olivine exposures and the absence of associated diogenite favour a mantle source, but the exposures are located far from the deep impact basins. The amount and distribution of observed olivine-rich material suggest a complex evolutionary history for Vesta.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ammannito, E -- De Sanctis, M C -- Palomba, E -- Longobardo, A -- Mittlefehldt, D W -- McSween, H Y -- Marchi, S -- Capria, M T -- Capaccioni, F -- Frigeri, A -- Pieters, C M -- Ruesch, O -- Tosi, F -- Zambon, F -- Carraro, F -- Fonte, S -- Hiesinger, H -- Magni, G -- McFadden, L A -- Raymond, C A -- Russell, C T -- Sunshine, J M -- England -- Nature. 2013 Dec 5;504(7478):122-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12665. Epub 2013 Nov 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, 00133 Rome, Italy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24196707" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-12-15
    Description: Studies of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres using ground-based and orbiting telescopes have concluded that its closest meteoritic analogues are the volatile-rich CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites. Water in clay minerals, ammoniated phyllosilicates, or a mixture of Mg(OH)2 (brucite), Mg2CO3 and iron-rich serpentine have all been proposed to exist on the surface. In particular, brucite has been suggested from analysis of the mid-infrared spectrum of Ceres. But the lack of spectral data across telluric absorption bands in the wavelength region 2.5 to 2.9 micrometres--where the OH stretching vibration and the H2O bending overtone are found--has precluded definitive identifications. In addition, water vapour around Ceres has recently been reported, possibly originating from localized sources. Here we report spectra of Ceres from 0.4 to 5 micrometres acquired at distances from ~82,000 to 4,300 kilometres from the surface. Our measurements indicate widespread ammoniated phyllosilicates across the surface, but no detectable water ice. Ammonia, accreted either as organic matter or as ice, may have reacted with phyllosilicates on Ceres during differentiation. This suggests that material from the outer Solar System was incorporated into Ceres, either during its formation at great heliocentric distance or by incorporation of material transported into the main asteroid belt.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉De Sanctis, M C -- Ammannito, E -- Raponi, A -- Marchi, S -- McCord, T B -- McSween, H Y -- Capaccioni, F -- Capria, M T -- Carrozzo, F G -- Ciarniello, M -- Longobardo, A -- Tosi, F -- Fonte, S -- Formisano, M -- Frigeri, A -- Giardino, M -- Magni, G -- Palomba, E -- Turrini, D -- Zambon, F -- Combe, J-P -- Feldman, W -- Jaumann, R -- McFadden, L A -- Pieters, C M -- Prettyman, T -- Toplis, M -- Raymond, C A -- Russell, C T -- England -- Nature. 2015 Dec 10;528(7581):241-4. doi: 10.1038/nature16172.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma, Italy. ; Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1567, USA. ; Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 80302, USA. ; Bear Fight Institute, 22 Fiddler's Road, PO Box 667, Winthrop, Washington 98862, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1410, USA. ; Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, Arizona 85719-2395, USA. ; Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin, Germany. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA. ; Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA. ; Institut de Recherche d'Astrophysique et Planetologie, Observatoire Midi Pyrenees, Universite Paul Sabatier, 14 Avenue E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26659184" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-09-22
    Description: Using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector, we tested models of Vesta's evolution based on studies of howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites. Global Fe/O and Fe/Si ratios are consistent with HED compositions. Neutron measurements confirm that a thick, diogenitic lower crust is exposed in the Rheasilvia basin, which is consistent with global magmatic differentiation. Vesta's regolith contains substantial amounts of hydrogen. The highest hydrogen concentrations coincide with older, low-albedo regions near the equator, where water ice is unstable. The young, Rheasilvia basin contains the lowest concentrations. These observations are consistent with gradual accumulation of hydrogen by infall of carbonaceous chondrites--observed as clasts in some howardites--and subsequent removal or burial of this material by large impacts.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Prettyman, Thomas H -- Mittlefehldt, David W -- Yamashita, Naoyuki -- Lawrence, David J -- Beck, Andrew W -- Feldman, William C -- McCoy, Timothy J -- McSween, Harry Y -- Toplis, Michael J -- Titus, Timothy N -- Tricarico, Pasquale -- Reedy, Robert C -- Hendricks, John S -- Forni, Olivier -- Le Corre, Lucille -- Li, Jian-Yang -- Mizzon, Hugau -- Reddy, Vishnu -- Raymond, Carol A -- Russell, Christopher T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Oct 12;338(6104):242-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1225354. Epub 2012 Sep 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395, USA. prettyman@psi.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22997135" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-04-12
    Description: Observations with the Venus Express magnetometer and low-energy particle detector revealed magnetic field and plasma behavior in the near-Venus wake that is symptomatic of magnetic reconnection, a process that occurs in Earth's magnetotail but is not expected in the magnetotail of a nonmagnetized planet such as Venus. On 15 May 2006, the plasma flow in this region was toward the planet, and the magnetic field component transverse to the flow was reversed. Magnetic reconnection is a plasma process that changes the topology of the magnetic field and results in energy exchange between the magnetic field and the plasma. Thus, the energetics of the Venus magnetotail resembles that of the terrestrial tail, where energy is stored and later released from the magnetic field to the plasma.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, T L -- Lu, Q M -- Baumjohann, W -- Russell, C T -- Fedorov, A -- Barabash, S -- Coates, A J -- Du, A M -- Cao, J B -- Nakamura, R -- Teh, W L -- Wang, R S -- Dou, X K -- Wang, S -- Glassmeier, K H -- Auster, H U -- Balikhin, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 4;336(6081):567-70. doi: 10.1126/science.1217013. Epub 2012 Apr 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China. tielong.zhang@oeaw.ac.at〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22491094" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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