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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Since its emergence in 2013, the H7N9 low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) has been circulating in domestic poultry in China, causing five waves of human infections. A novel H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) variant possessing multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein was first reported in two cases of human infection in January 2017. More seriously, those novel H7N9 HPAIV variants have been transmitted and caused outbreaks on poultry farms in eight provinces in China. Herein, we demonstrate the presence of three different amino acid motifs at the cleavage sites of these HPAIV variants which were isolated from chickens and humans and likely evolved from the preexisting LPAIVs. Animal experiments showed that these novel H7N9 HPAIV variants are both highly pathogenic in chickens and lethal to mice. Notably, human-origin viruses were more pathogenic in mice than avian viruses, and the mutations in the PB2 gene associated with adaptation to mammals (E627K, A588V, and D701N) were identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing of the isolates from infected mice. No polymorphisms in the key amino acid substitutions of PB2 and HA in isolates from infected chicken lungs were detected by NGS. In sum, these results highlight the high degree of pathogenicity and the valid transmissibility of this new H7N9 variant in chickens and the quick adaptation of this new H7N9 variant to mammals, so the risk should be evaluated and more attention should be paid to this variant. IMPORTANCE Due to the recent increased numbers of zoonotic infections in poultry and persistent human infections in China, influenza A(H7N9) virus has remained a public health threat. Most of the influenza A(H7N9) viruses reported previously have been of low pathogenicity. Now, these novel H7N9 HPAIV variants have caused human infections in three provinces and outbreaks on poultry farms in eight provinces in China. We analyzed the molecular features and compared the relative characteristics of one H7N9 LPAIV and two H7N9 HPAIVs isolated from chickens and two human-origin H7N9 HPAIVs in chicken and mouse models. We found that all HPAIVs both are highly pathogenic and have valid transmissibility in chickens. Strikingly, the human-origin viruses were more highly pathogenic than the avian-origin viruses in mice, and dynamic mutations were confirmed by NGS and Sanger sequencing. Our findings offer important insight into the origin, adaptation, pathogenicity, and transmissibility of these viruses to both poultry and mammals.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-12-04
    Description: Ionic protein-lipid interactions are critical for the structure and function of membrane receptors, ion channels, integrins and many other proteins. However, the regulatory mechanism of these interactions is largely unknown. Here we show that Ca(2+) can bind directly to anionic phospholipids and thus modulate membrane protein function. The activation of T-cell antigen receptor-CD3 complex (TCR), a key membrane receptor for adaptive immunity, is regulated by ionic interactions between positively charged CD3epsilon/zeta cytoplasmic domains (CD3(CD)) and negatively charged phospholipids in the plasma membrane. Crucial tyrosines are buried in the membrane and are largely protected from phosphorylation in resting T cells. It is not clear how CD3(CD) dissociates from the membrane in antigen-stimulated T cells. The antigen engagement of even a single TCR triggers a Ca(2+) influx and TCR-proximal Ca(2+) concentration is higher than the average cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Our biochemical, live-cell fluorescence resonance energy transfer and NMR experiments showed that an increase in Ca(2+) concentration induced the dissociation of CD3(CD) from the membrane and the solvent exposure of tyrosine residues. As a consequence, CD3 tyrosine phosphorylation was significantly enhanced by Ca(2+) influx. Moreover, when compared with wild-type cells, Ca(2+) channel-deficient T cells had substantially lower levels of CD3 phosphorylation after stimulation. The effect of Ca(2+) on facilitating CD3 phosphorylation is primarily due to the charge of this ion, as demonstrated by the fact that replacing Ca(2+) with the non-physiological ion Sr(2+) resulted in the same feedback effect. Finally, (31)P NMR spectroscopy showed that Ca(2+) bound to the phosphate group in anionic phospholipids at physiological concentrations, thus neutralizing the negative charge of phospholipids. Rather than initiating CD3 phosphorylation, this regulatory pathway of Ca(2+) has a positive feedback effect on amplifying and sustaining CD3 phosphorylation and should enhance T-cell sensitivity to foreign antigens. Our study thus provides a new regulatory mechanism of Ca(2+) to T-cell activation involving direct lipid manipulation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shi, Xiaoshan -- Bi, Yunchen -- Yang, Wei -- Guo, Xingdong -- Jiang, Yan -- Wan, Chanjuan -- Li, Lunyi -- Bai, Yibing -- Guo, Jun -- Wang, Yujuan -- Chen, Xiangjun -- Wu, Bo -- Sun, Hongbin -- Liu, Wanli -- Wang, Junfeng -- Xu, Chenqi -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 3;493(7430):111-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11699. Epub 2012 Dec 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201688" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; Feedback, Physiological/drug effects ; Humans ; Jurkat Cells ; Lipid Bilayers/chemistry/metabolism ; *Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects ; Mice ; Phospholipids/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell/drug effects/immunology/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Solvents/chemistry/metabolism ; Static Electricity ; T-Lymphocytes/drug effects/immunology/*metabolism ; Tyrosine/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-01-30
    Description: Non-small-cell lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Chemotherapies such as the topoisomerase II (TopoII) inhibitor etoposide effectively reduce disease in a minority of patients with this cancer; therefore, alternative drug targets, including epigenetic enzymes, are under consideration for therapeutic intervention. A promising potential epigenetic target is the methyltransferase EZH2, which in the context of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is well known to tri-methylate histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and elicit gene silencing. Here we demonstrate that EZH2 inhibition has differential effects on the TopoII inhibitor response of non-small-cell lung cancers in vitro and in vivo. EGFR and BRG1 mutations are genetic biomarkers that predict enhanced sensitivity to TopoII inhibitor in response to EZH2 inhibition. BRG1 loss-of-function mutant tumours respond to EZH2 inhibition with increased S phase, anaphase bridging, apoptosis and TopoII inhibitor sensitivity. Conversely, EGFR and BRG1 wild-type tumours upregulate BRG1 in response to EZH2 inhibition and ultimately become more resistant to TopoII inhibitor. EGFR gain-of-function mutant tumours are also sensitive to dual EZH2 inhibition and TopoII inhibitor, because of genetic antagonism between EGFR and BRG1. These findings suggest an opportunity for precision medicine in the genetically complex disease of non-small-cell lung cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393352/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393352/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fillmore, Christine M -- Xu, Chunxiao -- Desai, Pooja T -- Berry, Joanne M -- Rowbotham, Samuel P -- Lin, Yi-Jang -- Zhang, Haikuo -- Marquez, Victor E -- Hammerman, Peter S -- Wong, Kwok-Kin -- Kim, Carla F -- CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA122794/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA140594/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA154303/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA163896/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA166480/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K08 CA163677/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA140594/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA163896/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA166480/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL090136/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL100402/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 9;520(7546):239-42. doi: 10.1038/nature14122. Epub 2015 Jan 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Stem Cell Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; 1] Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Belfer Institute for Applied Cancer Science, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Stem Cell Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Chemical Biology Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25629630" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anaphase/drug effects ; Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Apoptosis/drug effects ; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy/enzymology/genetics/pathology ; Cell Cycle/drug effects ; Cell Line, Tumor ; DNA Helicases/*genetics ; Etoposide/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Genes, erbB-1/*genetics ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/*drug therapy/enzymology/*genetics/pathology ; Mice ; Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Nuclear Proteins/*genetics ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 2/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Topoisomerase II Inhibitors/*pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Transcription Factors/*genetics ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-09-17
    Description: Blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils provide immune protection against pathogens, but may also promote tissue injury in inflammatory diseases. Although neutrophils are generally considered to be a relatively homogeneous population, evidence for heterogeneity is emerging. Under steady-state conditions, neutrophil heterogeneity may arise from ageing and replenishment by newly released neutrophils from the bone marrow. Aged neutrophils upregulate CXCR4, a receptor allowing their clearance in the bone marrow, with feedback inhibition of neutrophil production via the IL-17/G-CSF axis, and rhythmic modulation of the haematopoietic stem-cell niche. The aged subset also expresses low levels of L-selectin. Previous studies have suggested that in vitro-aged neutrophils exhibit impaired migration and reduced pro-inflammatory properties. Here, using in vivo ageing analyses in mice, we show that neutrophil pro-inflammatory activity correlates positively with their ageing whilst in circulation. Aged neutrophils represent an overly active subset exhibiting enhanced alphaMbeta2 integrin activation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation under inflammatory conditions. Neutrophil ageing is driven by the microbiota via Toll-like receptor and myeloid differentiation factor 88-mediated signalling pathways. Depletion of the microbiota significantly reduces the number of circulating aged neutrophils and dramatically improves the pathogenesis and inflammation-related organ damage in models of sickle-cell disease or endotoxin-induced septic shock. These results identify a role for the microbiota in regulating a disease-promoting neutrophil subset.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712631/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712631/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Dachuan -- Chen, Grace -- Manwani, Deepa -- Mortha, Arthur -- Xu, Chunliang -- Faith, Jeremiah J -- Burk, Robert D -- Kunisaki, Yuya -- Jang, Jung-Eun -- Scheiermann, Christoph -- Merad, Miriam -- Frenette, Paul S -- R01 CA154947/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA173861/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA190400/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK056638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL069438/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL116340/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):528-32. doi: 10.1038/nature15367. Epub 2015 Sep 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. ; Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; The Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; The Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374999" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood/microbiology/pathology ; Animals ; Cell Aging/*immunology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Erythrocytes, Abnormal/pathology ; Inflammation/immunology/pathology ; Macrophage-1 Antigen/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Microbiota/*immunology ; Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism ; Neutrophils/*cytology/*immunology ; Shock, Septic/immunology/microbiology/pathology ; Signal Transduction ; Toll-Like Receptors/immunology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: CD8(+) T cells have a central role in antitumour immunity, but their activity is suppressed in the tumour microenvironment. Reactivating the cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T cells is of great clinical interest in cancer immunotherapy. Here we report a new mechanism by which the antitumour response of mouse CD8(+) T cells can be potentiated by modulating cholesterol metabolism. Inhibiting cholesterol esterification in T cells by genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of ACAT1, a key cholesterol esterification enzyme, led to potentiated effector function and enhanced proliferation of CD8(+) but not CD4(+) T cells. This is due to the increase in the plasma membrane cholesterol level of CD8(+) T cells, which causes enhanced T-cell receptor clustering and signalling as well as more efficient formation of the immunological synapse. ACAT1-deficient CD8(+) T cells were better than wild-type CD8(+) T cells at controlling melanoma growth and metastasis in mice. We used the ACAT inhibitor avasimibe, which was previously tested in clinical trials for treating atherosclerosis and showed a good human safety profile, to treat melanoma in mice and observed a good antitumour effect. A combined therapy of avasimibe plus an anti-PD-1 antibody showed better efficacy than monotherapies in controlling tumour progression. ACAT1, an established target for atherosclerosis, is therefore also a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851431/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851431/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Wei -- Bai, Yibing -- Xiong, Ying -- Zhang, Jin -- Chen, Shuokai -- Zheng, Xiaojun -- Meng, Xiangbo -- Li, Lunyi -- Wang, Jing -- Xu, Chenguang -- Yan, Chengsong -- Wang, Lijuan -- Chang, Catharine C Y -- Chang, Ta-Yuan -- Zhang, Ti -- Zhou, Penghui -- Song, Bao-Liang -- Liu, Wanli -- Sun, Shao-cong -- Liu, Xiaolong -- Li, Bo-liang -- Xu, Chenqi -- HL 60306./HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL060306/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):651-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17412. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Shanghai Science Research Center, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Life Sciences, Collaborative Innovation Center for Infectious Diseases, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Haven 03755, USA. ; Rheumatology and Immunology Department of ChangZheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060, China. ; College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072, China. ; Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77054, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 100 Haike Road, Shanghai 201210, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetates/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase/antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Animals ; Atherosclerosis/drug therapy ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*drug effects/*immunology/metabolism ; Cell Membrane/drug effects/metabolism ; Cholesterol/*metabolism ; Esterification/drug effects ; Female ; Immunological Synapses/drug effects/immunology/metabolism ; Immunotherapy/*methods ; Male ; Melanoma/*drug therapy/*immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Mice ; Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors/immunology ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Sulfonic Acids/*pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-09-18
    Description: Hybrid sterility is a major form of postzygotic reproductive isolation that restricts gene flow between populations. Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) consists of two subspecies, indica and japonica; inter-subspecific hybrids are usually sterile. We show that a killer-protector system at the S5 locus encoded by three tightly linked genes [Open Reading Frame 3 (ORF3) to ORF5] regulates fertility in indica-japonica hybrids. During female sporogenesis, the action of ORF5+ (killer) and ORF4+ (partner) causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ORF3+ (protector) prevents ER stress and produces normal gametes, but ORF3- cannot prevent ER stress, resulting in premature programmed cell death and leads to embryo-sac abortion. Preferential transmission of ORF3+ gametes results in segregation distortion in the progeny. These results add to our understanding of differences between indica and japonica rice and may aid in rice genetic improvement.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Jiangyi -- Zhao, Xiaobo -- Cheng, Ke -- Du, Hongyi -- Ouyang, Yidan -- Chen, Jiongjiong -- Qiu, Shuqing -- Huang, Jianyan -- Jiang, Yunhe -- Jiang, Liwen -- Ding, Jihua -- Wang, Jia -- Xu, Caiguo -- Li, Xianghua -- Zhang, Qifa -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Sep 14;337(6100):1336-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1223702.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Centre of Plant Gene Research, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22984070" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Chimera/*genetics ; Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics ; Germ Cells, Plant/metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Open Reading Frames/genetics ; Oryza/cytology/*genetics ; Plant Infertility/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-12-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Altosaar, Illimar -- Oehmen, Adrian -- Almeida, C Marisa R -- De Pascale, Stefania -- de Tommasi, Nunziatina -- Dominguez de Maria, Pablo -- Orzaez, Diego -- Zervos, Antonis -- Xu, Chunlin -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 13;492(7428):186. doi: 10.1038/492186c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Ottawa, Canada. altosaar@uottawa.ca〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23235868" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Peer Review, Research/*standards/trends ; Research Support as Topic/economics/*trends ; Romania
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-04-27
    Description: Germinal centres support antibody affinity maturation and memory formation. Follicular T-helper cells promote proliferation and differentiation of antigen-specific B cells inside the follicle. A genetic deficiency in the inducible co-stimulator (ICOS), a classic CD28 family co-stimulatory molecule highly expressed by follicular T-helper cells, causes profound germinal centre defects, leading to the view that ICOS specifically co-stimulates the follicular T-helper cell differentiation program. Here we show that ICOS directly controls follicular recruitment of activated T-helper cells in mice. This effect is independent from ICOS ligand (ICOSL)-mediated co-stimulation provided by antigen-presenting dendritic cells or cognate B cells, and does not rely on Bcl6-mediated programming as an intermediate step. Instead, it requires ICOSL expression by follicular bystander B cells, which do not present cognate antigen to T-helper cells but collectively form an ICOS-engaging field. Dynamic imaging reveals ICOS engagement drives coordinated pseudopod formation and promotes persistent T-cell migration at the border between the T-cell zone and the B-cell follicle in vivo. When follicular bystander B cells cannot express ICOSL, otherwise competent T-helper cells fail to develop into follicular T-helper cells normally, and fail to promote optimal germinal centre responses. These results demonstrate a co-stimulation-independent function of ICOS, uncover a key role for bystander B cells in promoting the development of follicular T-helper cells, and reveal unsuspected sophistication in dynamic T-cell positioning in vivo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xu, Heping -- Li, Xuanying -- Liu, Dan -- Li, Jianfu -- Zhang, Xu -- Chen, Xin -- Hou, Shiyue -- Peng, Lixia -- Xu, Chenguang -- Liu, Wanli -- Zhang, Lianfeng -- Qi, Hai -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 25;496(7446):523-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12058.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, Laboratory of Dynamic Immunobiology, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23619696" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; B-Lymphocytes/*immunology/metabolism ; Bystander Effect/*immunology ; *Cell Movement ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Genotype ; Germinal Center/*cytology/immunology ; Inducible T-Cell Co-Stimulator Ligand/metabolism ; Inducible T-Cell Co-Stimulator Protein/*metabolism ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Mice ; Pseudopodia/metabolism ; Receptors, CXCR5 ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/*cytology/*immunology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-11-03
    Description: Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a catabolic membrane trafficking process that degrades a variety of cellular constituents and is associated with human diseases. Although extensive studies have focused on autophagic turnover of cytoplasmic materials, little is known about the role of autophagy in degrading nuclear components. Here we report that the autophagy machinery mediates degradation of nuclear lamina components in mammals. The autophagy protein LC3/Atg8, which is involved in autophagy membrane trafficking and substrate delivery, is present in the nucleus and directly interacts with the nuclear lamina protein lamin B1, and binds to lamin-associated domains on chromatin. This LC3-lamin B1 interaction does not downregulate lamin B1 during starvation, but mediates its degradation upon oncogenic insults, such as by activated RAS. Lamin B1 degradation is achieved by nucleus-to-cytoplasm transport that delivers lamin B1 to the lysosome. Inhibiting autophagy or the LC3-lamin B1 interaction prevents activated RAS-induced lamin B1 loss and attenuates oncogene-induced senescence in primary human cells. Our study suggests that this new function of autophagy acts as a guarding mechanism protecting cells from tumorigenesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dou, Zhixun -- Xu, Caiyue -- Donahue, Greg -- Shimi, Takeshi -- Pan, Ji-An -- Zhu, Jiajun -- Ivanov, Andrejs -- Capell, Brian C -- Drake, Adam M -- Shah, Parisha P -- Catanzaro, Joseph M -- Ricketts, M Daniel -- Lamark, Trond -- Adam, Stephen A -- Marmorstein, Ronen -- Zong, Wei-Xing -- Johansen, Terje -- Goldman, Robert D -- Adams, Peter D -- Berger, Shelley L -- P01AG031862/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA078831/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM106023/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 5;527(7576):105-9. doi: 10.1038/nature15548. Epub 2015 Oct 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Epigenetics Program, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA. ; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA. ; Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow and Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK. ; Department of Biochemistry &Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Molecular Cancer Research Group, Institute of Medical Biology, University of Tromso - The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromso, Norway. ; Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524528" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism ; Animals ; *Autophagy ; Cell Aging ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Cells, Cultured ; Chromatin/chemistry/metabolism ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; Fibroblasts ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Lamin Type B/genetics/metabolism ; Lysosomes/metabolism ; Mice ; Microfilament Proteins/metabolism ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism ; Nuclear Lamina/*metabolism ; Oncogene Protein p21(ras)/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Proteolysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: The morbidity and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common cancer, are increasing continuously worldwide. Galangin (Ga) has been demonstrated to possess anti-cancer effect, but the efficacy of Ga was limited by its low permeability and poor solubility. To develop aqueous formulation and improve the anti-cancer activity of Ga, surface decoration of functionalized selenium nanoparticles with Ga (Se@Ga) was synthesized in the present study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of Se@Ga and the mechanism on HepG2 cells. Se@Ga-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis was confirmed by depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential, translocation of phosphatidylserine and caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, Se@Ga enhanced the anti-cancer activity of HepG2 cells through ROS-mediated AKT and p38 signalling pathways. In summary, these results suggest that Se@Ga might be potential candidate chemotherapy for cancer.
    Keywords: inorganic chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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