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  • 1
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Although the pattern of cancer incidence in South Korea is not the same as that of western countries, urological cancer will become one of the major cancers in South Korea in the near future. The pattern of cancer in South Korea is becoming steadily similar to that in western countries. It is, therefore, important to understand the epidemiological features of cancer. Surveillance of cancer incidence and mortality trends provides clues to etiology and helps to assess the effects of improved diagnostic, screening and intervention measures.Methods: The subjects of the study were 13 208 patients living in South Korea, newly diagnosed with urological cancer during the period of 1985–1999. The data were analyzed by age, sex, geography and period of diagnosis (1985–1989; 1990–1994; 1995–1999).Results: Bladder cancer was the most common urological cancer in South Korea (6867 cases, 52.0%). The incidence of prostate cancer and renal cell carcinoma was similar. Male patients outnumbered female patients by a ratio of 5.4 : 1. In both sexes, the peak incidence of urological cancer in South Korea was noted in the 70+ age group. The geographic distribution of urological cancer across seven residential areas was similar. The incidence rate of all urological cancer (except urethral and penile cancer) had increased remarkably, especially in the last several years. The crude incidence rate of urological cancer among Koreans in South Korea was estimated to be 46.55 per 100 000 males, 8.64per 100 000 females and 27.67 per 100 000 across both sexes.Conclusion: Although this survey is not definitive, these data should be useful in showing general patterns or changes of incidence of urological cancer in South Korea. The elevated incidence of urological cancer noted in our survey also indicates the need for continued promotion of urological cancer screening programs. Moreover, these results may be useful in indicating directions for future research of urological cancer.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: We investigated changes in zinc concentrations in serum and prostatic tissue after an intraprostatic injection of zinc, and compared two forms of zinc delivery: solution and liposome.Methods: Ninety-six male Wistar rats were used in the study (24 controls, 72 test rats). The test animals were randomly divided into two groups and were injected intraprostatically with 2 mL of 0.04 mol/L zinc sulfate according to the form of zinc delivery. Nine rats in each test group were sacrificed 1 day, 7, 14 and 28 days after injection, and 24 normal rats were injected intraprostatically with 2 mL of distilled water as controls. Serum and prostatic zinc concentrations of each group were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Blood chemistries, routine urinalysis, urine culture and histopathologic examination were also performed.Results: Serum zinc concentrations did not change significantly after the intraprostatic injection of zinc. Prostatic zinc concentrations were found to be significantly greater (P 〈 0.05) in zinc-injected groups than in the control group. The intraprostatic injection of zinc solution and zinc liposome increased zinc levels in both ventral and dorsolateral lobes significantly. Prostatic zinc levels increased progressively following injection, reaching a peak level in 7 days and maintaining a high value throughout the experimental period. The prostatic zinc level of the 1-day zinc liposome group was higher than that of the 1-day zinc solution group, while no significant difference was observed between the solution and liposome group in 7, 14, 28 days. No abnormal findings were observed in any of the laboratory and histopathologic examinations; however, an acute inflammatory response was observed in the 1-day groups.Conclusion: These findings suggest that an intraprostatic injection of zinc in normal rats increases and maintains the prostatic zinc level for at least 4 weeks without causing any systemic or local toxicities. These findings suggest the potentially important clinical applicability of local zinc to the treatment of chronic prostatitis.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Many attempts have been made to improve the treatment success rate of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). However, no treatment modality has achieved complete cure. The growth and development of the prostate is under direct hormonal control, and it is possible that prostatitis may be directly influenced by its hormonal milieu in a similar fashion to benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Therefore, the effects of androgen deprivation on the treatment of CBP were investigated in rats.Methods: Experimental CBP was induced in one hundred, male Wistar rats by instillation of bacterial suspension (Escherichia coli Z17, O2: K1: H-) containing 1 × 108 CFU/µL into the prostatic urethra. Microbiologically and histologically proven CBP was demonstrated in 62% (62 of 100) of the rats after 4 weeks of bacterial instillation. The 62 rats demonstrating CBP were randomly divided into five groups: control; castration; finasteride; estrogen; and levofloxacin groups. All drug treatments were conducted over a period of 4 weeks.Results: Microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate and urine samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth and improved inflammatory responses in all four experimental groups compared with the control group. The castration and estrogen groups showed coherent trends of decrease in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group, but not to a statistically significant degree (P 〉 0.05). However, the finasteride and levofloxacin groups did show statistically significant decreases in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group (P 〈 0.05).Conclusion: These results suggest that androgen deprivation is an effective modality in CBP treatment. In particular, the finasteride treatment reduced the severity of CBP in the animal model without reducing the systemic testosterone level. The combination of finasteride and levofloxacin maybe one of the effective treatment modalities for CBP.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: The purpose of the present study was to define the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections and status of sexual risk behavior among university students (18–25 years old) in the capital region of South Korea.Methods: Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire related to sexuality. First-void urine was analyzed for chlamydial and gonococcal infection by strand displacement amplification (BDProbTecET, BD Diagnostic Systems, MD).Results: A total of 622 students from 15 colleges in three universities took part in the study. The median age was 21 and 39.1% of them reported having sexual intercourse at least once. The prevalence of C. trachomatis among sexually active men and women was 8.4% and 10.6%, respectively. Gonococcal infection was noted in one symptomatic male. Factors significantly associated with infection were the number of sexual partners during past year and lifetime and condom use.Conclusions: This is the first sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening in university students in South Korea. Urine-based STI screening was both feasible and acceptable in university students in South Korea. It should be considered a routine part of programs to control STI nationally.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Background:  Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is the most common urological disease in adult men. Antibiotic therapy is the gold standard of treatment. However, long-term therapy resulted in many side-effects and bacterial resistance. Because of these reasons, we need new treatment modality that could replace traditional antibiotic therapy. Catechin, an extract of green tea, has antimicrobial effect against various bacteria and synergy effect to antibiotics. We evaluate the synergistic effects of catechin on the treatment of CBP in an animal model.Methods:  An experimental CBP model was induced in 70 male Wistar rats by instillation of 0.2 mL bacterial suspension (E-coli Z17, O2:K1:H-) containing 1 × 108 CFU/mL into the prostatic urethra. Microbiologically and histologically proven CBP model was demonstrated in 58.6% (41 of 70) of the rats after 4 weeks of bacterial instillation. The 41 rats demonstrating CBP were randomly divided into four groups; the control, catechin, ciprofloxacin and catechin with ciprofloxacin groups. All drug treatments were conducted over a period of 2 weeks. After treatment, the results were analyzed with microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate and urine samples to compare each group.Results:  Microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate and urine samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth and improved inflammatory responses in all three experimental groups compared with the control group. The catechin group showed coherent trends of decrease in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group, but not to a statistically significant degree (P 〉 0.05). However, the ciprofloxacin and catechin with ciprofloxacin groups showed statistically significant decreases in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group (P 〈 0.05). The catechin with ciprofloxacin group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the ciprofloxacin group (P 〈 0.05).Conclusions:  These results suggest that catechin may be an effective material in CBP treatment. Particularly, combination treatment of catechin and ciprofloxacin has synergistic effect. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of catechin and ciprofloxacin may be effective in treating CBP with a higher success rate.
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