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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Mainz//2011; 56. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie (gmds), 6. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Epidemiologie (DGEpi); 20110926-20110929; Mainz; DOC11gmds306 /20110920/
    Publication Date: 2011-09-20
    Keywords: SNPs ; polymorphisms ; colorectal cancer ; ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Abstract: Pancreatic phospholipase A2, product of PLA2G1B, catalyzes the release of fatty acids from dietary phospholipids.Diet is the ultimate source of arachidonic acid in cellular phospholipids, precursor of eicosanoid signaling molecules, linked to inflammation, cell proliferation and colorectal carcinogenesis. We evaluated the association of PLA2G1B tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms with colorectal neoplasia risk. A linkage-disequilibrium-based tagSNP algorithm (r(2)=0.90, MAF〉/=4%) identified three tagSNPs. The SNPs were genotyped on the Illumina platform in three population-based, case-control studies: colon cancer (1424 cases/1780 controls); rectal cancer (583/775); colorectal adenomas (485/578). Evaluating gene-wide associations, principal-component and haplotype analysis were conducted, individual SNPs were evaluated by logistic regression. Two PLA2G1B variants were statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of rectal cancer (rs5637, 3702 G〉A Ser98Ser, p-trend=0.03; rs9657930, 1593 C〉T, p-trend=0.01); principal component analysis showed that genetic variation in the gene overall was statistically significantly associated with rectal cancer (p=0.02). NSAID users with the rs2070873 variant had a reduced rectal cancer risk (P-inter=0.02). Specific associations were observed with tumor subtypes (TP53/KRAS). The results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in PLA2G1B affect susceptibility to rectal cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24046806
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  • 3
    Keywords: PROGRESSION ; FIBER ; COLON-CANCER ; ULCERATIVE-COLITIS ; METAANALYSIS ; RED MEAT ; MULTIETHNIC COHORT ; susceptibility loci ; ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION ; ASSOCIATION SCAN
    Abstract: Dietary factors, including meat, fruits, vegetables and fiber, are associated with colorectal cancer; however, there is limited information as to whether these dietary factors interact with genetic variants to modify risk of colorectal cancer. We tested interactions between these dietary factors and approximately 2.7 million genetic variants for colorectal cancer risk among 9,287 cases and 9,117 controls from ten studies. We used logistic regression to investigate multiplicative gene-diet interactions, as well as our recently developed Cocktail method that involves a screening step based on marginal associations and gene-diet correlations and a testing step for multiplicative interactions, while correcting for multiple testing using weighted hypothesis testing. Per quartile increment in the intake of red and processed meat were associated with statistically significant increased risks of colorectal cancer and vegetable, fruit and fiber intake with lower risks. From the case-control analysis, we detected a significant interaction between rs4143094 (10p14/near GATA3) and processed meat consumption (OR = 1.17; p = 8.7E-09), which was consistently observed across studies (p heterogeneity = 0.78). The risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat was increased among individuals with the rs4143094-TG and -TT genotypes (OR = 1.20 and OR = 1.39, respectively) and null among those with the GG genotype (OR = 1.03). Our results identify a novel gene-diet interaction with processed meat for colorectal cancer, highlighting that diet may modify the effect of genetic variants on disease risk, which may have important implications for prevention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24743840
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  • 4
    Keywords: DISEASE ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; COLON-CANCER ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; RISK LOCI ; COMMON SNPS ; HUMAN HEIGHT
    Abstract: A sizable fraction of colorectal cancer (CRC) is expected to be explained by heritable factors, with heritability estimates ranging from 12 to 35% twin and family studies. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified a number of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRC risk. Although it has been shown that these CRC susceptibility SNPs only explain a small proportion of the genetic risk, it is not clear how much of the heritability these SNPs explain and how much is left to be detected by other, yet to be identified, common SNPs. Therefore, we estimated the heritability of CRC under different scenarios using Genome-Wide Complex Trait Analysis in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium including 8025 cases and 10 814 controls. We estimated that the heritability explained by known common CRC SNPs identified in GWAS was 0.65% (95% CI:0.3-1%; P = 1.11 x 10-16), whereas the heritability explained by all common SNPs was at least 7.42% (95% CI: 4.71-10.12%; P = 8.13 x 10(-8)), suggesting that many common variants associated with CRC risk remain to be detected. Comparing the heritability explained by the common variants with that from twin and family studies, a fraction of the heritability may be explained by other genetic variants, such as rare variants. In addition, our analysis showed that the gene x smoking interaction explained a significant proportion of the CRC variance (P = 1.26 x 10(-2)). In summary, our results suggest that known CRC SNPs only explain a small proportion of the heritability and more common SNPs have yet to be identified
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24562164
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  • 5
    Keywords: HEALTH ; DESIGN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; OBESITY ; COLON-CANCER ; microsatellite instability ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLES
    Abstract: Background: High body mass index (BMI) is consistently linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer for men, whereas the association is less clear for women. As risk estimates from observational studies may be biased and/or confounded, we conducted a Mendelian randomization study to estimate the causal association between BMI and colorectal cancer. Methods: Weused data from 10,226 colorectal cancer cases and 10,286 controls of European ancestry. The Mendelian randomization analysis used a weighted genetic risk score, derived from 77 genome-wide association study-identified variants associated with higher BMI, as an instrumental variable (IV). We compared the IV odds ratio (IV-OR) with the OR obtained using a conventional covariate-adjusted analysis. Results: Individuals carrying greater numbers of BMI-increasing alleles had higher colorectal cancer risk[ per weighted allele OR, 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.57]. Our IV estimation results support the hypothesis that genetically influenced BMI is directly associated with risk for colorectal cancer (IV-OR per 5 kg/m(2), 1.50; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01). In the sex-specific IV analyses higher BMI was associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer among women (IV-OR per 5 kg/m(2), 1.82; 95% CI, 1.26-2.61). For men, genetically influenced BMI was not associated with colorectal cancer (IV-OR per 5 kg/m(2), 1.18; 95% CI, 0.73-1.92). Conclusions: High BMI was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for women. Whether abdominal obesity, rather than overall obesity, is a more important risk factor for men requires further investigation. Impact: Overall, conventional epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization studies suggest a strong association between obesity and the risk of colorectal cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25976416
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  • 6
  • 7
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk variants. We analyzed 11,900 cases and 14,311 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. To fine-map genomic regions containing all known common risk variants, we imputed high-density genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. We tested single-variant associations with colorectal tumor risk for all variants spanning genomic regions 250-kb upstream or downstream of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs (index SNPs). We queried the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser to examine evidence for biological function. Index SNPs did not show the strongest association signals with colorectal tumor risk in their respective genomic regions. Bioinformatics analysis of SNPs showing smaller P-values in each region revealed 21 functional candidates in 12 loci (5q31.1, 8q24, 11q13.4, 11q23, 12p13.32, 12q24.21, 14q22.2, 15q13, 18q21, 19q13.1, 20p12.3, and 20q13.33). We did not observe evidence of additional independent association signals in GWAS-identified regions. Our results support the utility of integrating data from comprehensive fine-mapping with expanding publicly available genomic databases to help clarify GWAS associations and identify functional candidates that warrant more onerous laboratory follow-up. Such efforts may aid the eventual discovery of disease-causing variant(s).
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27379672
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  • 8
    Keywords: RISK ; VARIANTS ; METAANALYSIS ; susceptibility loci ; EPISTASIS ; ASSOCIATION SCAN ; ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS ; RANDOM FORESTS ; HUMAN-DISEASES ; SEROTONIN
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, these susceptibility loci known today explain only a small fraction of the genetic risk. Gene-gene interaction (GxG) is considered to be one source of the missing heritability. To address this, we performed a genome-wide search for pair-wise GxG associated with CRC risk using 8,380 cases and 10,558 controls in the discovery phase and 2,527 cases and 2,658 controls in the replication phase. We developed a simple, but powerful method for testing interaction, which we term the Average Risk Due to Interaction (ARDI). With this method, we conducted a genome-wide search to identify SNPs showing evidence for GxG with previously identified CRC susceptibility loci from 14 independent regions. We also conducted a genome-wide search for GxG using the marginal association screening and examining interaction among SNPs that pass the screening threshold (p 〈 10(-4)). For the known locus rs10795668 (10p14), we found an interacting SNP rs367615 (5q21) with replication p = 0.01 and combined p = 4.19x10(-8). Among the top marginal SNPs after LD pruning (n = 163), we identified an interaction between rs1571218 (20p12.3) and rs10879357 (12q21.1) (nominal combined p = 2.51x10(-6); Bonferroni adjusted p = 0.03). Our study represents the first comprehensive search for GxG in CRC, and our results may provide new insight into the genetic etiology of CRC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23300701
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  • 9
    Keywords: COHORT ; HETEROCYCLIC AMINES ; POLYMORPHISMS ; smoking ; COLON-CANCER ; CONSUMPTION ; EXCISION-REPAIR ; GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; POULTRY INTAKE
    Abstract: Background: Red meat intake has been associated with risk of colorectal cancer, potentially mediated through heterocyclic amines. The metabolic efficiency of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) required for the metabolic activation of such amines is influenced by genetic variation. The interaction between red meat intake, NAT2 genotype, and colorectal cancer has been inconsistently reported. Methods: We used pooled individual-level data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Red meat intake was collected by each study. We inferred NAT2 phenotype based on polymorphism at rs1495741, highly predictive of enzyme activity. Interaction was assessed using multiplicative interaction terms in multivariate-adjusted models. Results: From 11 studies, 8,290 colorectal cancer cases and 9,115 controls were included. The highest quartile of red meat intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer compared with the lowest quartile [ OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-1.55]. However, a significant association was observed only for studies with retrospective diet data, not for studies with diet prospectively assessed before cancer diagnosis. Combining all studies, high red meat intake was similarly associated with colorectal cancer in those with a rapid/intermediate NAT2 genotype (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.20-1.59) as with a slow genotype (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.28-1.61; P interaction = 0.9). Conclusion: We found that high red meat intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer only from retrospective case-control studies and not modified by NAT2 enzyme activity. Impact: Our results suggest no interaction between NAT2 genotype and red meat intake in mediating risk of colorectal cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25342387
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  • 10
    Keywords: POLYMORPHISMS ; COLON-CANCER ; NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS ; chemoprevention ; METAANALYSIS ; CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; PROSTAGLANDIN E-2 BIOSYNTHESIS ; PIK3CA MUTATION ; INTERLEUKIN-16
    Abstract: MPORTANCE Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVE To identify common genetic markers that may confer differential benefit from aspirin or NSAID chemoprevention, we tested gene x environment interactions between regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case-control study using data from 5 case-control and 5 cohort studies initiated between 1976 and 2003 across the United States, Canada, Australia, and Germany and including colorectal cancer cases (n=8634) and matched controls (n=8553) ascertained between 1976 and 2011. Participants were all of European descent. EXPOSURES Genome-wide SNP data and information on regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs and other risk factors. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Colorectal cancer. RESULTS Regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs was associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% Cl, 0.64-0.74]; P = 6.2 x 10(-28)) compared with nonregular use. In the conventional logistic regression analysis, the SNP rs2965667 at chromosome 12p12.3 near the MGST1 gene showed a genome-wide significant interaction with aspirin and/or NSAID use (P = 4.6 x 10(-9) for interaction). Aspirin and/or NSAID use was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs2965667-TT genotype (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.61-0.70]; P =7.7 x 10(-33)) but with a higher risk among those with rare (4%) TA or AA genotypes (prevalence, 35% vs 29%; OR, 1.89 [95% Cl, 1.27-2.81]; P = .002). In case-only interaction analysis, the SNP rs16973225 at chromosome 15q25.2 near the IL16 gene showed a genome-wide significant interaction with use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs (P = 8.2 x 10(-9) for interaction). Regular use was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs16973225-AA genotype (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.62-0.71]; P = 1.9 x 10(-30)) but was not associated with risk of colorectal cancer among those with less common (9%) AC or CC genotypes (prevalence, 36% vs 39%; OR, 0.97 [95% Cl, 0.78-1.20]; P = .76). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this genome-wide investigation of gene x environment interactions, use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs was associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer, and this association differed according to genetic variation at 2 SNPs at chromosomes 12 and 15. Validation of these findings in additional populations may facilitate targeted colorectal cancer prevention strategies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25781442
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