Polymer and Materials Science
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
The content of acrylic acid and acrylamide in their copolymers can be controlled by changing pH. The reactivity ratio of acrylic acid decreases with increasing pH, while the reactivity ratio of acrylamide increases with increasing pH. At low pH values, acrylamide is present in its protonated form which causes its reactivity to be low whereas at high pH values the reactivity of acrylic acid is decreased owing to its dissociation. When the monomer and radical approach each other, the acrylate anion becomes the least reactive species because of its symmetrical charge distribution, like charge repulsion and barium ion screening effect. HMO calculations were performed for models of all monomers and polymer radicals involved in copolymerizations. The experimental results concerning the reactivity of acrylic acid and acrylamide in copolymerization and the observed reactivity ratios were discussed on the basis of HMO calculations and resonance and Coulomb electrostatic effects. The observed reactivity ratios were correlated with the calculated differences in resonance energies computed for the models of transition states involved in copolymerizations.
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