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  • 1
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0091-3057
    Keywords: Adrenocorticotropic hormone ; Amphetamine ; Behavior ; Corticosterone ; Locomotion ; Stereotyped behaviors ; Stress
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Conditioned reinforcement ; Dopamine ; Reward ; Nucleus accumbens ; D1 and D2 receptors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Several experiments investigated the involvement of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the ventral striatum in the control over behaviour by a conditioned reinforcer using an acquisition of new response procedure. Intra-accumbens infusion of either the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, or the D2 receptor antagonist, raclopride, completely blocked the potentiative effects of intra-accumbensd-amphetamine on responding with conditioned reinforcement and reduced responding to control levels. SCH 23390 was more potent than raclopride. At higher doses in the absence ofd-amphetamine, both antagonists also blocked the preference for responding on the lever producing the conditioned reinforcer. Intra-accumbens infusions of either the D1 receptor agonist, SKF 38393, or the D2/3 receptor agonist, LY 171555 (quinpirole), selectively potentiated responding on the lever producing the conditioned reinforcer. Various combined infusions of the D1 and D2 agonists in specific low doses had additive, but not synergistic, effects on responding with conditioned reinforcement. None of the drugs affected the drinking of water in deprived subjects when infused intra-accumbens. These results suggest that both D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens are involved in mediating the effects of dopamine in potentiating the control over behaviour by conditioned reinforcers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Behaviour ; Morphine ; Naloxone ; Withdrawal syndrome ; Ethopharmacology ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The intensity of opiate withdrawal syndrome in rats is usually quantified on the basis of selected physical signs or global scores. However, the selection criteria of signs and scores have not been subjected to an ethological discussion, hence they appear to be somewhat arbitrary. The objectives of this study were thus: i) to analyse the rat's behaviour during the nalox-one-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome, ii) to evaluate the validity of classic methods, and iii) to design a new “etho-score”. Ten rats were implanted with morphine pellets (75 mg×2, SC), all receiving different naloxone doses following a within-subject design (0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/kg SC). Twenty unexperienced rats and 20 with placebo pellets were injected with either saline or naloxone. Behaviour was videotaped and later analysed by computer-based ethological techniques. The ethogram encompassed 16 patterns displayed by rats during morphine withdrawal. Frequency, duration and latency of each pattern was measured, and a cluster analysis allowed discerning the structure of behaviour. Several physical signs and the Gellert-Holtzman score were also evaluated. The data revealed that writhing responses linearly changed in a dose-related fashion, and mastication was also enhanced after naloxone. Wet-dog shakes and jumping changed following an U-shaped curve. Significant changes in weight loss were found to be dose-dependent, and highly correlated to diarrhea. Learning effects were found to reliably affect exploration, writhing responses and some physical signs. The Gellert-Holtzman score was gradually enhanced after naloxone, being affected by learning as well. Naloxone affected lying and self-care responses in placebo rats. To sum up, the data indicated that: i) classic signs are useful, although most of them are disrupted by high naloxone or affected by learning effects, ii) the Gellert-Holtzman score was validated in this study, and iii) mastication and weight loss are good indicators of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal, representing the basis of an “etho-score” which is herein proposed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Substance P ; Ventral mesencephalon ; Investigatory behavior ; Motor behavior ; Dopamine ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the present experiments the behavioral response to substance P (SP) microinfusion into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), substantia nigra (SN), and sensorimotor cortex (CX) was investigated in detail. The experiments were carried out using an eight-hole box to measure exploratory behavior and a video monitor for the analysis of spontaneous motor behavior. When infused into the VTA, SP (0.125, 0.5, 3.0 μg) augmented the frequency and total duration of hole-pokes, and tended to diminish the mean duration of hole-pokes. The strategy and organization of responses, as measured by the order of hole-visits and hole-switching, were unchanged by SP and there was no indication of stereotypy, measured by the number of hole-pokes per hole-visit. The open-field analysis revealed a marked increase in locomotion and rearing, both in the periphery and center of the arena; grooming was decreased by SP. The behavioral profile following SN infusions of SP (3.0 μg) was similar to that elicited by VTA infusions, with the exception that center rearing was not enhanced. SP administration into cortex (3 μg) had no significant effect on any behavioral measures. It is hypothesized that SP infused into the ventral mesencephalon results in an enhancement of approach response tendencies, suggesting that endogenous SP in this region may regulate spontaneous behavior. The possibility of an interaction between SP and meso-telencephalic dopamine neurons is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Neurotensin ; Ventral mesencephalon ; Investigatory behaviour ; Motor behavior ; Dopamine ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present experiments examined in detail the behavioral response to microinfusions of neurotensin (NT) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), substantia nigra (SN) and hippocampus (HPC). The behavioral apparatus consisted of an eight-hole box in which investigatory and spontaneous motor behavior were recorded. Three doses (0.175, 0.5, 4.0 μg) of NT were injected into the VTA. The main effect of NT was a strong augmentation of rearing (frequency and duration) both in the periphery and center of the arena, accompanied by a small increase in locomotion and decreased grooming. NT had no effect on the strategy, organization, or duration of exploration but did augment frequency of hole visits towards the end of the session. NT injected into the SN and HPC had no effect on investigatory and spontaneous behavior with the exception of an increase in peripheral locomotion after HPC-NT injections. The results are discussed in terms of a modulatory role of endogenous NT on mesolimbic dopamine neurons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Enkephalin ; Ventral mesencephalon ; Investigatory behaviour ; Motor behaviour ; Dopamine ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, originating in the ventral tegmental area and projecting to limbic forebrain regions, plays a crucial role in mediating several important aspects of behaviour. Proximal to these DA neurons are enkephalin-containing nerve fibers. In an attempt to characterize the behavioural role of enkephalinergic transmission in the VTA, the present experiment examined in detail the investigatory and motor responses to microinfusion of d-ala-met-enkephalin (DALA), a long lasting analogue of enkephalin, into the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Injections into the substantia nigra (SN) and the hippocampus (HPC) were also performed as controls for site specificity. The behavioural apparatus consisted of an eight-hole box monitored by a video camera. Four doses of DALA were injected in the VTA (0.05, 0.1, 1 and 2.5 μg/μl bilaterally in 1 μl volume) and one dose in the SN and HPC (0.1 μg/μl bilaterally in 1 μl volume). The effect of DALA injections in the VTA was characterized by an inverted U-shape dose-effect curve. The low doses (0.05 and 0.1) induced an increase in the frequency of hole visits accompanied by a decrease in the mean duration of visits, whereas the highest doses induced a decrease in hole visit frequency. Low doses of DALA had no effect on strategy or organization of exploration, whereas the high doses produced decreased switching between holes. After low doses of DALA, locomotor activity at the periphery of the testing box was not significantly affected but locomotor activity in the centre was increased. After high doses of DALA, locomotor activity in the center and at the periphery of the box were decreased. Frequency of rearing was either not affected or decreased by DALA treatment. DALA injected in the SN resulted in a small increase in frequency of hole visits and did not affect rearing and locomotor activity. DALA injection in the HPC had no effect on investigatory and spontaneous motor behaviour. The results are discussed in terms of a modulatory role of endogenous enkephalin on mesolimbic dopamine neurons.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Psychostimulant ; Amphetamine ; Stress ; Long-term sensitization ; Social isolation ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of experimential factors on the vulnerability of rats to develop amphetamine (AMPH)- and stressor-induced behavioral sensitization. Young male Wistar rats with previous social experience were isolated from their peers for 2 weeks. 1) The effect of this short-lasting social deprivation were: a) a reduced tendency to explore a fearful environment; b) a prolonged exploratory activity in response to a novel but little fearful environment; and c) a dose-dependent increase in the psychomotor stimulation induced by systemic AMPH injection. 2) After repeated AMPH injections (injection every other day for 10 days), isolated rats exhibited behavioral sensitization at lower doses (0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg) than those required for group-housed rats (1 mg/kg). 3) After being submitted to a repeated stressor (3, 7 or 14 footshock sessions, with 2 days between sessions), the isolated rats exhibited a greater increase in the behavioral responsivity to a subsequent AMPH challenge (1 mg/kg) than did the group-housed rats regardless of the number of stress sessions. In conclusion, these results suggest that experiential factors such as privation of contact with peers (social isolation) may make rats more vulnerable to the long-term repercussions of chronic environmental and pharmacological challenges.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Conditioned reinforcement ; Dopamine ; Noradrenaline ; d-Amphetamine ; Dorsal noradrenergic bundle ; Nucleus accumbens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Three experiments examined the behavioural, pharmacological and neural specificity of the previously reported potentiation of responding with conditioned reinforcement following intra-accumbensd-amphetamine, by studying the effects of intraaccumbens dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline, using an acquisition of a new response procedure. In experiment 1, the effects of intra-cerebral DA infusions (5, 20, 50 µg/2 µl) were compared in four conditions: (i) intra-accumbens DA following positive pairing of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and water during training; (ii) as (i) but also following a systemic dose of the DA receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol; (iii) intra-accumbens DA following random pairing of the CS and water during training; and (iv) as (i) but with intra-caudate rather than intra-accumbens DA. The results showed that only with intra-accumbens DA in the positive pairing condition was there a significant dose-dependent increase in responding. In experiment 2, the effects of a higher range of doses (20, 100, 200 µg) and smaller infusion volume (5, 25, 50 µg/l µl) of intra-accumbens DA were studied, in comparison with a similar range of doses (5, 25, 50 µg/l µl) of intra-accumbens noradrenaline (NA). Only DA produced a selective, dose-dependent increase in responding with conditioned reinforcement. In experiment 3 neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle (DNAB) using 6-hydroxydopamine producing profound (about 90%) depletion of cortical and nucleus accumbens NA levels had no effect on the increased responding with conditioned reinforcement produced by intra-accumbensd-amphetamine (3, 10, 30 µg/l µl). The results are discussed in terms of the neurochemical mediation of the potentiation of the effects of conditioned reinforcers byd-amphetamine and the role of DA-dependent mechanisms of the nucleus accumbens in reward-related processes.
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