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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The level of cellular differentiation of human oral, sulcular, and junctional epithelium was compared by immunohistochemical analysis of cell membrane-associated blood group-specific carbohydrates. Identification of the blood group A-specific carbohydrate and its two immediate precursor substances, type 2 chain H and N-acetyllactosamine, was accomplished by an indirect immunofluorescence technique. Murine monoclonal antibodies reacting specifically with the antigenic determinants of the blood group substances were used as markers. The blood group A substance, indicating the highest level of cellular differentiation, was demonstrated on the cells in the upper layers of the oral epithelium. In the sulcular epithelium, the A substance was present on a few cells only, while type 2 chain H was observed frequently. This indicates an intermediate differentiation level of sulcular epithelium. The type 2 chain H precursor, N-acetyllactosamine, the indicator of the lowest level of cell differentiation among the tested substances, was the only blood group substance detected on the junctional epithelial cells and on the basal cells of the sulcular and oral epithelium. Based upon previous studies of cell renewal and differentiation in oral epithelium, the present results indicate that the variations in distribution of the different blood group substances correspond with the regional rates of cell division and the levels of cellular differentiation. The findings also suggest that the cells in the junctional epithelium differentiate to a level similar to that of basal cells in the oral epithelium.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The placement of oral implants into jaw bone has a high predictability provided an adequate bone volume surrounding the implant is present to ensure primary stability and resistance to functional loading forces after completion of osseointegration. In the distal area of the maxilla, an adequate bone volume is often lacking because of the proximity of the sinus cavities. The aim of this study was to evaluate histologically the simultaneous placement of endosseous implants into the sinus cavity and the surgical elevation of the sinus floor including filling the cavity with different grafting materials. In 9 sinus areas of 5 beagle dogs, 9 titanium implants (ITI® Dental Implant System( were placed, and the void space of the sinus cavity was filled simultaneously with either demineralized freeze-dried human cortical bone (Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation), resorbable hydroxyapatite (Osteogen®) or natural cancelleous bovine bone mineral (Bio-Oss®). To study bone formation, fluorochrome markers (tetracycline HCI and calcein green) were used at 2 and 8 weeks. Clinically, all implants healed uneventfully, and 5 months after implant placement the dogs were killed for histologic evaluation. All implants exhibited osseointegration within the pre-existing cortical bone of the sinus floor. The implants surrounded by freeze-dried bone xenografts yielded no formation of new bone, whereas the sites with hydroxyapatite or natural bovine bone mineral demonstrated newly formed bone with direct contact at the implant surface. The average extent of bone to implant contact was 25%(SD= 10.6%) and 27%(SD=8.8%), respectively in relation to the length of the originally denuded implant surface. In addition, the bone markers revealed a rapid bone formation and remodeling, especially around natural bovine bone mineral particles. This study yields new bone formation with direct contact to the implants surfaces in the sinus cavity into which suitable grafting materials were placed simultaneously. Resorbable hydroxyapatite (Osteogena) and natural cancellous bovine bone mineral (Bio-Oss®) were osteoconductive and hence were suitable for bone formation around endosseous implants.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of the present study was to assess in a clinical trial over 5 years the results following 4 different modalities of periodontal therapy (pocket elimination or reduction surgery, modified Widman flap surgery, subgingival curettage, and scaling and root planing). 90 patients were treated. The treatment methods were applied on a random basis to each of the 4 quadrants of the dentition. The patients were given professional tooth cleaning and oral hygiene instructions every 3 months. Pocket depth and attachment levels were scored once a year. 72 patients completed the 5 years of observation. Both patient means for pocket depth and attachment level as well as % distribution of sites with loss of attachment ≥2 mm and ≥3 mm were compared.For 1-3 mm probing depth, scaling and root planing, as well as subgingival curettage led to significantly less attachment loss than pocket elimination and modified Widman flap surgery. For 4 6 mm pockets, scaling and root planing and curettage had better attachment results than pocket elimination surgery. For the 7-12 mm pockets, there was no statistically significant difference among the results following the various procedures.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to compare clinical, radiographic and histological differences around titanium oral implants loaded with either acrylic-veneered metal or ceramo-metal fixed prostheses. Five beagle dogs were used in this investigation. At the beginning of the study, all mandibular premolars and first molars were extracted. After 3 months of healing, 2 Brånemark implants were installed on each side of the mandibles. Three months later, abutments were inserted on each implant and a daily oral hygiene regime was initiated. One month after abutment connection, the implants on one side of the mandible were restored with an acrylic-veneered metal fixed prosthesis, whereas, on the other side a ceramo-metal fixed prosthesis was inserted. The prostheses were constructed in occlusion with the maxillary first molars. The following clinical parameters were measured around each implant at this time (i.e., baseline), and thereafter, at monthly intervals up to 5 months: Plaque Index; Gingival Index; implant mobility (using the Periotest®); probing depth and clinical attachment level (using the Florida Probe®). In addition, standardized radiographs were taken at baseline and 5 months after insertion of the prostheses and evaluated by subtraction radiography. Another Brånemark fixture was installed on each side of the mandibles 3 months before the end of the study. These implants remained unloaded and submerged for the entire study period. Five months after prosthesis insertion, the animals were killed, and implants with their supporting peri-implant tissues were processed for histological evaluation. Analyses of the clinical, radiographic and histometric parameters revealed no significant differences between the acrylic-veneered and ceramometal loaded implants. All clinical and radiographic parameters remained stable over time. Histological comparison of the alveolar bone height levels around both loaded groups with those from the unloaded, submerged implants revealed that a similar and slight loss of bone height (approximately 0.6 mm) occurred on the loaded groups following abutment connection. It was concluded that both acrylic-veneered metal and ceramo-metal suprastructures appear to be suitable for the restoration of endosseous oral implants. Additional long-term studies in humans, however, are needed evaluating both types of implant-supported prostheses, in a variety of clinical conditions. before final restorative recommendations are made.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Periodontal probing is commonly used for assessing both the status of gingival health and the connective tissue attachment level around teeth.The role of probing around endosseous implants still remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the histological level of probe penetration in healthy and inflamed mucosal tissues around implants. Five beagle dogs were used and a total of 30 one-stage. Titanium Plasma Spary (TPS)-coated implants of the ITI type were placed in the mandibles. After the healing period with meticulous oral hygiene. the dogs were divided into 3 groups: 1) clinical healthy mucosal tissues; 2) experimental mucositis (3 dogs); and 3) experimental ligature-induced peri-implantitis (2 dogs). Four months after implant placement, respectively 6 months in the third group, 60 probes were placed with a standardized force of 0.2 N and fixed at the mesial and distal aspects of the implants. Probing depth. clinical attachment level (CAL), Plaque index (PII) and Gingival Index (GI) were assessed throughout the study. Tissue sections were obtained for histometrical analysis. In the healthy group, the mean PII was 0.47. the GI 0.06 and the clinical probing depth (CPD) 2.12 mm. In the mucositis group the PII was 1.61, the GI 1.61 and the CPD 1.87 mm. In the peri-implantitis group the PII was 1.96, the GI 2.05 and the CPD 3.73 mm. The histologic results show that the probes were able to identify the connective tissue adhesion level in the healthy group with a mean error of −0.05 mm (mean histologic probing depth (HPD): 1.75 mm) and, in the mucositis group, with −0.02 mm (mean HPD: 1.62 mm). Probe penetration increased with the degree of inflammation and in the peri-implantitis group the probe exceeded the connective tissue level by a mean 0.52 mm (mean HPD: 3.8 mm). Therefore, probing around implants represents a good technique for assessing the status of peri-implant mucosal health disease.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The purpose of the randomized clinical trial was to test; (1) the influence of occlusal adjustment (OA) in association with periodontal therapy on attachment levels, pocket depth, and tooth mobility, (2) whether OA was of greater significance in non-surgically treated periodontal defects, and (3) whether initial tooth mobility or disease severity had an affect on post-treatment attachment levels following OA. After hygienic-phase therapy, 50 patients received OA/No OA according to random assignment; 22 patients received an OA and 28 were not adjusted. 2 months after OA, either modified Widman flap surgery or scaling and root planing by a periodontist were done according to random assignment within each patient in a split-mouth design. Following active treatment patients were maintained with prophylaxis done every 3 months and scored annually. For the analysis of this two-year data, a repeated measures analysis of variance was performed using attachment level change and pocket depths as outcome indicators. There was significantly greater gain of clinical periodontal attachment in patients who received an OA compared to those who did not. Both the surgically and non-surgically treated sides of the mouth responded similarly to OA. There was no affect of OA on the response in pocket depth, nor did initial tooth mobility or initial periodontal disease severity influence the response to OA.
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