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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-725X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-725X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Poly(L-lysine) of various molecular weights between 2700 and 475,000 was spin-labeled. From the electron spin resonance spectra, the degree of freedom of the nitroxide was determined by calculation of the rotational correlation time as the poly(L-lysine) underwent the pH-induced random coil to α-helix conformational transition. In general, the rotational correlation time of the nitroxide increased as the pH was increased, indicating a more restricted environment for the spin label when poly(L-lysine) is deprotonated. For the high-molecular-weight poly(L-lysine) this corresponds to the formation of the α-helix and indicates that the side chain-side chain interaction and decreased segmental motion of the backbone (slightly) restricts the motion of the spin label. For the 2700-molecular-weight poly(L-lysine), previously shown not to assume a helical conformation at high pH, the increase in the rotational correlation time of the spin label indicates that the side chain-side chain interaction takes place after deprotonation but without helix formation. This may indicate that helix formation per se is not needed to produce the observed effect even with the high-molecular-weight polymers. The rotational correlation time of the spin label at a particular pH did not depend on the molecular weight of the poly(L-lysine) over the 200-fold range of molecular weights. This indicates that the rotational correlation time reflects the rotational mobility of the spin label in a localized environment and not the rotational diffusion of the entire macromolecule.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148 , USA , and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1542-474X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is characterized by progressive replacement of RV myocardium with fibro-adipose tissue thought to be responsible for the presence of late potentials (LP) detected by SAECG. The general consensus on the role of SAECG in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with ARVD is lacking. The purpose of this systematic review was to better define the role of SAECG in ARVD. Methods: An extensive review of literature was done to specifically describe the prevalence of LP in ARVD and its determinants, explore the various options available to improve the diagnostic ability of SAECG, and provide recommendations for proper utilization of this technique. Results: LPs are frequent in ARVD (47–100%), and more prevalent in severe disease and in patients with documented spontaneous VT. SAECG is a useful test in following the characteristic evolutivity of the disease. 4–16% of normal family members of patients with ARVD also have abnormal SAECG results. Detection of LP in ARVD can be improved by employing a high-pass filter of 25 Hz and specifically looking for changes in the Z leads. Conclusions: SAECG testing should be considered a standard part of the evaluation of patients with known or suspected ARVD. Further research is needed to confirm the value of SAECG testing in predicting arrhythmia risk and assessing the rate of disease progression, as well as to determine if greater prevalence of SAECG abnormalities in family members of patients with ARVD represents early detection of ARVD. The ongoing multidisciplinary study of right ventricular dysplasia will hopefully answer some of these questions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: ATIGA, W.L., et al.: Prospective Randomized Comparison of Cooled Radiofrequency Versus Standard Radiofrequency Energy for Ablation of Typical Atrial Flutter. In patients with atrial flutter, conventional RF ablation may not result in complete isthmus block. This prospective, randomized study tested the hypothesis that the cooled RF ablation is safe and facilitates the achievement of isthmus block with fewer RF applications than with standard ablation for typical atrial flutter. Isthmus ablation was performed in 59 patients (40 men, 64 ± 14 years) with type I atrial flutter using standard RF (n = 31) or cooled RF (n = 28) catheters with crossover after 12 unsuccessful RF applications. The endpoint was bidirectional isthmus block or a total of 24 unsuccessful RF applications. After the first 12 RF applications, 17 (55%) of 31 standard RF and 22 (79%) of 28 cooled RF patients had bidirectional isthmus block (P 〈 0.05). After the remaining patients crossed over to the alternate RF ablation system and underwent up to 12 more RF applications, bidirectional isthmus block had been demonstrated in 27 (87%) of 31 standard RF and 25 (89%) of 28 cooled RF patients (P = NS). Isthmus block was not achieved within 24 RF applications in four standard and three cooled RF patients. Mean measured tip temperatures for cooled RF were lower than for standard RF (38.5°C ± 6.98°C vs 57.2°C ± 7.42°C, P 〈 0.0001). Peak temperatures were also lower for cooled RF compared to standard RF (45.7°C ± 22.7°C vs 63.4°C ± 9.87°C, P 〈 0.0001). Importantly, mean power delivered was significantly higher for cooled than for standard RF (42.3 ± 9.48 vs 34.0 ± 14.0 W, P 〈 0.0001). There were no serious complications for either ablation system. During a 12.8 ± 3.76-month follow-up, there were two atrial flutter recurrences in the cooled RF group and four in the standard RF group (P = NS). In patients with type I atrial flutter, ablation with the cooled RF catheter is as safe as, and facilitates creation of bidirectional isthmus block more rapidly than, standard RF ablation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: CALKINS, H., et al.: Prospective Randomized Comparison of the Safety and Effectiveness of Placement of Endocardial Pacemaker and Defibrillator Leads Using the Extrathoracic Subclavian Vein Guided by Contrast Venography Versus the Cephalic Approach. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare the safety and efficacy of the cephalic approach versus a contrast-guided extrathoracic approach for placement of endocardial leads. Despite an increased incidence of lead fracture, the intrathoracic subclavian approach remains the dominant approach for placement of pacemaker and implantable defibrillator leads. Although this complication can be prevented by lead placement in the cephalic vein or by lead placement in the extrathoracic subclavian or axillary vein, these approaches have not gained acceptance. A total of 200 patients were randomized to undergo placement of pacemaker or implantable defibrillator leads via the contrast-guided extrathoracic subclavian vein approach or the cephalic approach. Lead placement was accomplished in 99 of the 100 patients randomized to the extrathoracic subclavian vein approach as compared to 64 of 100 patients using the cephalic approach. In addition to a higher initial success rate, the extrathoracic subclavian vein medial approach was determined to be preferable as evidenced by a shorter procedure time and less blood loss. There was no difference in the incidence of complications. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that lead placement in the extrathoracic subclavian vein guided by contrast venography is effective and safe. It was also associated with no increased risk of complications as compared with the cephalic approach. These findings suggest that the contrast-guided approach to the extrathoracic portion of the subclavian vein should be considered as an alternative to the cephalic approach.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Microwave energy has been proposed as an alternative to radiofrequency energy for use during catheter ablation procedures. The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare, in an animal model, the lesion size associated with temperature guided catheter ablation using either microwave or radiofrequency energy. Eleven swine underwent catheter ablation with either radiofrequency (N = 4) or microwave energy (N = 7). In each animal catheter ablation was performed at 7–15 sites. At each site energy was delivered for 60 seconds using closed loop feedback temperature control to achieve a target temperature of 70°C. Cardiac catheterization was performed before and after ablation. Animals were sacrificed approximately one month following the ablation procedure. Analysis of lesion size demonstrated that overall lesions created using radiofrequency energy were larger than those created using microwave energy. In the ventricle, lesions created using microwave energy were longer, but had a similar width and depth as those created using radiofrequency energy. An important relation was observed between tbe depth of lesions created using microwave energy and catheter stability, as evidenced by the temperature profile. Overall, lesions created using microwave energy are smaller than those created using radiofrequency energy. Catheter stability has an important impact on lesion size.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Site of Accessory Pathway Block. Introduction: Recent studies have demonstrated that the most common site of accessory pathway conduction block following the introduction of a premature atrial stimulus during atrial pacing is between the accessory pathway potential and the ventricular electrogram. consistent with block at the ventricular insertion of the accessory pathway. However, no prior study has evaluated the site of conduction block during radiofrequency catheter ablation procedures. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the site of conduction block after catheter ablation of accessory pathways by analyzing and comparing the local electrograms recorded before and after radiofrequency energy delivery at successful ablation sites. Methods and Results: The electrograms evaluated in this study were obtained from 85 consecutive patients who underwent successful radiofrequency catheter ablation of a manifest accessory pathway. The 50 left free-wall accessory pathways were ablated using a ventricular approach and the 35 right free-wall or posteroseptal accessory pathways were ablated using an atrial approach. The characteristics of local electrograms recorded immediately before and immediately after successful ablation of the accessory pathway were determined in each patient. The site of accessory pathway block was determined by comparing the amplitude, timing, and morphology of the local eleclrograms at successful sites of radiofrequency catheter ablation before and after delivery of radiofrequency energy. A putative accessory pathway potential was present at the successful target site in 74 of the 85 patients (87%). Conduction block occurred between the atrial electrogram and the accessory pathway potential in 66 patients (78%) and between the accessory pathway potential and the ventricular electrogram in eight patients (9%). The site of block could not be determined in 11 patients (13%) in whom an accessory pathway potential was absent. Conduction block occurred most frequently between the atrial electrogram and the accessory pathway potential regardless of accessory pathway location. No electrogram parameter or accessory pathway characteristic was predictive of the site of conduction block. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that conduction block occurs most frequently between the local atrial electrogram and the accessory pathway potential during radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways. This is true regardless of whether the accessory pathway is ablated from the atrial or ventricular aspect of the mitral or tricuspid annulus.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: QT Interval Variability and Sudden Death. Introduction: Recent studies have implicated repolarization lability in the genesis of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. However, few data exist on assessment of temporal QT interval variability and its relation to arrhythmogenesis. We tested the ability of the QT variability index (QTVI), a measure of beat-to-beat QT interval fluctuations measured on a single ECG lead, to identify patients presenting with malignant ventricular arrhythmias and predict their subsequent occurrences. Methods and Results: We measured the QTVI in 95 patients presenting for electrophysiologic study (EPS). The ability of the QTVI to identify patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD) or sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (MVT) on presentation and during follow-up of 23.7 ± 14.3 months was compared with spatial QT dispersion, T wave alternans ratio during atrial pacing, MVT inducibility at EPS, signal-averaged ECG, heart rate variability, and ejection fraction. The QTVI was higher in patients with heart disease than in controls (-0.7 ± 0.7 vs −1.1 ± 0.5, P 〈 0.05), and higher in patients presenting with SCD than in other patients with heart disease (0.0 ± 0.6 vs −0.8 ± 0.5, P 〈 0.05). The QTVI was the only clinical variable that identified patients who presented with SCD (P= 0.004, odds ratio = 12.5) on stepwise, logistic multiple regression. Fourteen patients had arrhythmic events during follow-up. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis of arrhythmic events, QTVI ≥ 0.1 was a discriminator for higher risk of arrhythmic events (P 〈 0.05). Conclusions: (1) This noninvasive measure of temporal repolarization lability identified patients with SCD and predicted arrhythmia-free survival. (2) Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms that mediate beat-to-beat QT interval variability.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: Typical atrial flutter (AFL) can be cured by catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI). The surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is not always diagnostic of isthmus dependence of AFL. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical parameters for the prediction of isthmus-dependent AFL. Methods and Results: Sixty consecutive adult patients without suspected atriotomy-related AFL, congenital heart disease, or previous AFL ablation, referred for catheter ablation of presumed typical AFL were studied. All patients had distinct flutter waves in the inferior leads, suggestive of CTI-dependent AFL, either on presentation to the electrophysiology (EP) lab or documented on prior ECG. Electrophysiology study was performed in the standard fashion. Patients who presented to the EP laboratory not in AFL underwent arrhythmia induction with a burst pacing protocol.A clinical history of persistent AFL (P = 0.0001) and existence of AFL on presentation to the EP laboratory (P = 0.0001) were strong predictors of CTI dependence. History of atrial fibrillation (P = 0.19), structural heart disease (P = 0.6), hypertension (P = 0.4), and previous cardiac surgery (P = 0.5), as well as the nature of AFL-related symptoms (P = 0.5), were not predictors of CTI-dependent AFL documented during EP study. Conclusion: In patients with ECG suggestive of typical AFL, the presence of persistent rather than paroxysmal AFL and presentation to the EP laboratory in AFL are strong predictors of CTI-dependent AFL. A paroxysmal pattern of AFL predicts noninducibility of CTI-dependent AFL during EP study. CTI ablation may therefore be less effective in these patients.
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