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  • 1
    ISSN: 1044-0305
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), an autosomal dominant disease characterized by neoplasia of the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary and endocrine pancreas, is rarely reported in Asian populations. The MEN1 gene, mapped to chromosome 11q13 but yet to be cloned, has been found to be homogeneous in Caucasian populations through linkage analysis. Here, two previously unreported Asian kindreds with MEN1 are described; link-age analysis using microsatellite polymorphic markers in the MEN1 region was carried out. The first kindred, of Mongolian-Chinese origin, is a multigeneration family with over 150 living members, eight of whom are affected to
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Gliclazide ; non-insulin dependent diabetes ; administration time ; plasma glucose ; insulin ; c-peptide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of altering the timing of gliclazide administration in relation to a meal was studied in ten type 2 (non-insulin dependent) chronically treated diabetics. Gliclazide was given 30 min before, at the start of and 30 min after breakfast or omitted altogether. Plasma gliclazide was present at greater than 2 mg/l throughout the study periods. Administration at 30 min after the meal significantly delayed the time to peak for plasma gliclazide. No significant difference was noted in plasma glucose, insulin or c-peptide patterns with any protocol. It is concluded that, in clinical practice, with chronically treated diabetics the timing of gliclazide ingestion in relation to meals is not critical.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Allometry ; Eucalyptus ; Height prediction ; Diameter prediction ; Mechanistic models
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Previous work has suggested that tree stems are structured dimensionally to resist the forces to which they are subjected by the weight of the crown and the action of wind, snow and other loads on the crown. This proposition has been used to develop allometric relationships relating diameter at breast height or height of individual trees growing in even-aged monoculture to their above-ground fresh biomass. These models have practical application as estimators of tree diameters or heights from tree biomass as extensions of mechanistically based models of forest tree growth which predict tree biomasses. The present work applied these models to Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell, E. delegatensis R. Baker, E. nitens (Deane: Maiden) Maiden and E. grandis Hill ex Maiden trees, growing in plantation or regrowth stands, aged between 1.5 and 20 years, at eight geographically diverse sites extending from temperate to sub-tropical regions of Australia. While the models held for the various species at the various sites, their parameter values differed significantly between sites and/or species. This suggested there may be some inadequacy in the models. However, the differences were small and it was found reasonable to fit single models across all species and sites for practical use in estimating diameter or height. The errors about predicted values of height and diameter from these models were quantified. The models were also found to estimate diameter or height with little loss of precision when dry biomass was used in place of fresh biomass.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction ; Random amplified polymorphic DNA ; Stylosanthes spp
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were generated from 20 cultivars and accessions representing four agronomically important species of Stylosanthes, S. scabra, S. hamata, S. guianensis, and S. humilis. Approximately 200 fragments generated by 22 primers of arbitrary sequence were used to assess the level of DNA variation. Relatively low levels of polymorphism (0–16% of total bands in pairwise comparisons) were found within each species, while polymorphisms between the species were much higher (up to 46%). Very few polymorphisms (0–2%) were detected between the individuals of the same cultivar or accession. A phenogram of relationships among the species was constructed based on band sharing. Four main clusters corresponding to each species were readily distinguished on this phenogram. The allotetraploid species S. hamata and its putative diploid progenitor, S. humilis, were more similar to each other than to S. scabra and S. guianensis. No variation in RAPD markers was found between the two commercial S. hamata cvs ‘Verano’ and ‘Amiga’. Cultivar ‘Oxley’ in S. guianensis was considerably different from the other cultivars and accessions of this species. The phylogenetic distinctions obtained with RAPDs were in agreement with other studies from morphology, cytology, and enzyme electrophoresis. The low level of polymorphisms observed within each species suggested that interspecific crosses may be a better vehicle for the construction of RAPD linkage maps in Stylosanthes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Appendix-mucocele ; Colon-intussusception
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Intussusception by an appendiceal mucocele into the colon is illustrated and the literature reviewed.
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  • 7
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    Springer
    Diabetologia 10 (1974), S. 649-654 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Spontaneous diabetes ; NZO mice ; insulin secretion ; islet cell function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Studies of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) secretion have been performedin vivo in NZO mice. After an overnight fast, plasma IRI levels were 2–5 times higher in NZO than in control white mice. The IRI response to arginine, 10 mg/kg IV or isoprenaline, 10 Μ/kg IV, was similar in time in the two mice, but IRI increments were greater in the NZO animals. With glucagon 1 Μg/kg IV or aminophylline 25 mg/kg IV the initial secretory response was delayed compared to control mice. Glucose 1.0 g/kg IV elicited a markedly attenuated initial response in NZO mice. When IRI responses were related to basal IRI levels, NZO mice showed smaller initial responses (1–5 min) to all agents tested. Later responses were comparable in the two groups when compared in this way. Diphenylhydantoin, 40 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally 30 min before glucose, 1.0 g/kg IV did not affect glucose-induced insulin secretion in control animals, but abolished it in the NZO mice. These observations suggest the existence of a defect in the IRI release mechanism of the NZOΒ cell situated at a point in the stimulus secretion coupling mechanism common to all the agents examined.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The syndrome of obesity induced by neonatal injection of monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been further studied in mice. In confirmation of previous studies stunting and decreased pituitary and gonadal weights were observed.2. After weaning food intake was consistendy less in MSG-treated than control mice. Body lipid stores were significantly elevated in MSG-treated mice by 2 weeks of age and increased progressively up to 4 months.3. Plasma glucose was comparable between MSG-treated and control mice in the fed state whereas after an overnight fast MSG-treated mice exhibited relative hypo-glycaemia.4. Obese MSG-treated mice did not exhibit resistance to exogenous insulin and disposed of an intravenous glucose load more rapidly than control mice.5. Hyperinsulinaemia was present inconsistently in both fed and fasted mice and in response to administered glucose.6. Neonatal administration of MSG provides a useful additional model for studying the role of the hypothalamus in obesity.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Dopamine D1 and SHT1d receptors are found on the terminals of afferent GABA neurons that synapse on the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons. The role of these receptors in the actions of cocaine was investigated using intracellular recordings in a brain slice preparation. Synaptic potentials were generated in the slice and GABA-mediated inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (IPSP) were identified.2. Stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors selectively enhanced the GABAb IPSP, and this effect was blocked by D1 antagonists. The magnitude of the IPSP was decreased when D1 antagonists were applied in isolation, suggesting tonic D1 receptor stimulation via dendritically released dopamine.3. Cocaine had an opposite effect and selectively decreased the magnitude of the GABAb IPSP. This action was mimicked by 5HT and the SHT1d agonist sumatriptan, and attenuated by the 5HTI1D/2c antagonist, metergoline. The action of cocaine was also mimicked by the 5HT-releasing agent, fenfluramine, and blocked by pre-incubation of the slice with the 5HT-depleting agent, para-chloroamphetamine.4. The results of this study suggest that dopamine and 5HT have opposing roles in modulating GABA input into VTA dopamine neurons. The actions of cocaine on this interplay may have implications for understanding its addictive properties.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Synaptonemal complex (SC) karyotyping is used to analyse the relationship of two Palearctic hamsters. Male Phodopus sungorus have 13 SCs plus an X-Y pair while P. roborovskii has 16 SCs and an X-Y pair. P. sungorus has four nucleolar organizers as opposed to two in P. roborovskii. Centromeres of the X and Y are juxtaposed in the pairing region of the latter but not in the former. SC lengths and relative arm ratios are also discussed. Comparisons with karyotypes of other hamster genera indicate large intergeneric karyotypic differences and expectedly much smaller variation within each genus. Data on the two Phodopus species suggest that their presently accepted congeneric status warrants further examination.
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