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  • 1
    Keywords: SUPPORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; INDEX ; REDUCTION ; BODY-WEIGHT ; TRIAL ; HUMANS ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; FAT ; C-REACTIVE PROTEIN ; TRENDS ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; exercise ; SERUM ; WEIGHT ; INTERLEUKIN-6 ; methods ; anthropometry ; OVERWEIGHT ; female ; INCREASED RISK ; BMI ; Aged ; Middle Aged ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; CONTROLLED-TRIAL ; WEIGHT-LOSS ; 3 ; INVESTIGATE ; C-REACTIVE-PROTEIN ; Abdominal ; *Exercise Therapy ; *Postmenopause ; AEROBIC EXERCISE ; C-Reactive Protein/*analysis ; Obesity/*physiopathology ; Serum Amyloid A Protein/analysis
    Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of a yearlong moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention on C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) among overweight or obese postmenopausal women. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 115 postmenopausal, overweight or obese, sedentary women, aged 50-75 yr were randomized to an aerobic exercise intervention of moderate-intensity (60%-75% observed maximal HR), for 〉 or = 45 min x d(-1), 5 d x wk (n = 53), or to a 1-d x wk(-1) stretching control (n = 62), on an intent-to-treat basis. CRP, SAA, and IL-6 were measured at baseline, at 3 months, and at 12 months. RESULTS: From baseline to 12 months, CRP decreased 10% in exercisers and increased 12% in controls (P = 0.01); no effects were observed for SAA and IL-6. Among participants at baseline who were obese (body mass index (BMI) 〉 or = 30 kg x m(-2)) or had abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) 〉 or = 88 cm), exercise resulted in a more pronounced reduction in CRP (BMI 〉 or = 30 kg x m(-2), P = 0.002; WC 〉 or = 88 cm, P 〈 0.0001), borderline for SAA (BMI 〉 or = 30 kg x m(-2), P = 0.08; WC 〉 or = 88 cm, P = 0.04); no intervention effects were observed among women who did not have these characteristics. Overall, weight loss was minimal in the exercise intervention ( approximately 1.8 kg). Linear trends were observed between CRP and 12-month changes in aerobic fitness (Ptrend = 0.006), exercise adherence (Ptrend = 0.004), percentage body fat (Ptrend = 0.002), body weight (Ptrend = 0.002), WC (Ptrend = 0.02), and intra-abdominal fat (Ptrend = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: A moderate-intensity exercise intervention reduced CRP for 12 months among women who were obese at baseline. These findings support the role of exercise in modulating inflammatory processes that are related to increased risk of chronic disease among obese women.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19568208
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    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; RISK ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; RNA ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; TISSUE ; INDEX ; BIOMARKERS ; BIOLOGY ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; prevention ; gene expression ; HUMANS ; ASSAY ; WOMEN ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; risk factors ; NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA ; cancer risk ; REGION ; FAT ; INDIVIDUALS ; BIOPSY ; TNF-ALPHA ; ADIPOSE-TISSUE ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; leptin ; EXTRACTION ; mRNA ; INTERLEUKIN-6 ; LEVEL ; biomarker ; methods ; ASSAYS ; OVERWEIGHT ; female ; RELEVANCE ; CANCER-RISK ; NECROSIS ; AGREEMENT ; colorectal ; SHORT-TERM ; Adiponectin ; AROMATASE ; INSIGHT ; Abdominal ; Adiponectin/biosynthesis/genetics ; Aromatase/biosynthesis/genetics ; Biopsy/methods ; Breast Neoplasms/*genetics/pathology ; Colorectal Neoplasms/*genetics/pathology ; Interleukin-6/biosynthesis/genetics ; Leptin/biosynthesis/genetics ; Obesity/*complications/genetics/pathology ; Overweight/complications/genetics/pathology ; Pilot Projects ; RNA,Messenger/analysis ; Subcutaneous Fat/metabolism/*pathology/surgery ; Tumor Markers,Biological/*analysis/genetics ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis/genetics
    Abstract: Examination of adipose tissue biology may provide important insight into mechanistic links for the observed association between higher body fat and risk of several types of cancer, in particular colorectal and breast cancer. We tested two different methods of obtaining adipose tissue from healthy individuals. Ten overweight or obese (body mass index, 25-40 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal women were recruited. Two subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were obtained per individual (i.e., right and left lower abdominal regions) using two distinct methods (method A: 14-gauge needle with incision, versus method B: 16-gauge needle without incision). Gene expression was examined at the mRNA level for leptin, adiponectin, aromatase, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in flash-frozen tissue, and at the protein level for leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, and TNF-alpha following short-term culture. Participants preferred biopsy method A and few participants reported any of the usual minor side effects. Gene expression was detectable for leptin, adiponectin, and aromatase, but was below detectable limits for IL-6 and TNF-alpha. For detectable genes, relative gene expression in adipose tissue obtained by methods A and B was similar for adiponectin (r = 0.64, P = 0.06) and leptin (r = 0.80, P = 0.01), but not for aromatase (r = 0.37,P = 0.34). Protein levels in tissue culture supernatant exhibited good intra-assay agreement [coefficient of variation (CV), 1-10%], with less agreement for intraindividual agreement (CV, 17-29%) and reproducibility, following one freeze-thaw cycle (CV, 〉14%). Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from healthy, overweight individuals provide adequate amounts for RNA extraction, gene expression, and other assays of relevance to cancer prevention research.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19139016
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