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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Liver transplantation, pediatric, biliary complications ; Biliary complications, liver transplantation, pediatric ; Pediatric liver transplantation, biliary complications
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Between 1983 and 1992, 112 children underwent liver transplantation. Of 138 grafts, 60 (43.4%) were whole livers, 77 (55.6%) were reduced livers, and 1 (0.7%) was a split liver. Biliary complications (BC) were defined as any abnormality, even minor, related to the biliary tract. Results were analysed with a minimum follow-up of 9 months. Some 36 grafts (26.1%) in 34 patients (30.4%) presented with BC: bile leaks (17 grafts), biliary obstructions or dilatations (16 grafts), and other complications (3 grafts). Management was mainly surgical with biliary reconstruction via a Roux-en-Y loop. Interventional radiology had an increasing role in recent years. BC were associated with a mortality of 1.8% (2/112), a graft loss rate of 4.3% (6/138), and significant morbidity. Among the various factors whose association with BC was studied, the date of transplantation, the use of reduced grafts and the use of gallbladder conduits appeared to be the main determining factors for BC. From multivariate analysis the use of reduced grafts emerged as the most important factor in reducing BC. We therefore conclude that BC are associated with significant morbidity, but general improvements in both surgical and medical management seem to account for better results in recent years.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Kidney preservation, dextran 40 ; Dextran 40, kidney preservation ; UW solution, dextran 40, kidney preservation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Although the University of Wisconsin (UW) solution has become the standard solution for the preservation of kidneys for transplantation, the importance of the colloid hydroxyethylstarch (HES), one of the key compounds of the UW solution, has been questioned repeatedly. It is now established that HES is not necessary for routine kidney preservation. However, colloids may still be advantageous in UW like solutions for the purpose of multiorgan procurements and the preservation of organs from marginal donors. It has been shown in various experimental models that dextran 40 may successfully substitute for HES. Dextran 40 is not only cheaper but also has a variety of biological effects that may be beneficial during the graft reperfusion phase. The aim of this clinical study was to examine the efficacy of a dextran 40-based preservation solution (Dex-PS) for its use in human kidney graft preservation and to compare the transplantation results with kidneys preserved with UW solution. A total of 87 kidneys were preserved with Dex-PS and matched with 87 kidneys preserved with UW solution. Both groups were comparable in terms of donor and recipient characteristics and both had a high proportion of kidneys from nonheart-beating donors. Patient survival and graft survival after 1 year were 95% and 86% for the Dex-PS group and 94% and 90% for the UW group, respectively (P=NS). Primary nonfunction, delayed graft function, postoperative need for dialysis, and follow-up of serum creatinine were statistically comparable between these two groups. We conclude that dextran 40 can safely replace HES in UW solution for the purpose of clinical kidney preservation. There were no statistically detectable differences in graft performance between the kidneys preserved with UW and those preserved with Dex-PS.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Aorta transplantation ; rat ; Heart-aorta transplantation, rat ; Rat, heart-aorta transplantation ; Rejection, heart-aorta ; transplantation ; rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop a microsurgical cluster model of heart plus entire thoracic aorta transplantation and to compare it to the isolated model of heart transplantation as a tool to study transplant rejection. Thirty-six syngeneic (DAxDA and LewxLew) and allogeneic (DAxPVG and DAxLew) cluster heart-aorta transplants were compared to 43 syngeneic and allogeneic isolated heart grafts. Graft survival, recipient survival and histological data on myocardial and aortic tissues were assessed. There was no statistically significant difference in graft survival between the two models studied (P〉0.05). In the cluster transplants, the aortic component was spared the severity of acute rejection noted for the myocardial counterpart. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the cluster model was technically feasible and highly reproducible. Additionally, it was possible to apply this model to the study of experimental allograft rejection using novel immunosuppressants. The success of the cluster model in strongly mismatched transplant strain combinations underscores its potential for application in slower rejection combinations, making it particularly suited for chronic rejection studies. The inherent capacity for sampling a broader range of vessel sizes in one animal makes the cluster model more suitable than the isolated models of aorta or heart for application to experimental protocols.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Organ xenografts under certain circumstances survive in the presence of anti-graft antibodies and complement, a situation referred to as “accommodation.” We find that the endothelial cells (ECs) in hamster hearts that accommodate themselves in rats express genes, such as A20 and bcl-2, ...
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