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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Normal human keratinocytes and the keratinocyte-derived cell lines NCTC 2544 and A 431, were exposed for different periods (i–5 days) to various concentrations (0·023–46.6 μg/ml) of nickel (Ni2+). A dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth and viability was observed. Cultures exposed to 2·3 μg Ni2+/ml showed approximately 50% cell survival at 5 days. An increase in release of interleukin I by keratinocytes was detected following culture for 24 h with a Ni2+ concentration of 2·3–11·5 μg/ml. Short periods of incubation (30 min) with these concentrations induced an activation of lipoxygenase in leucocytes from healthy subjects, without modifying cell viability. The results suggest that the percutaneous penetration of small amounts of Ni2+ can result in damage to keratinocytes and can initiate sensitization.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We report the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of a woman suffering from cystic echinococcosis of the liver, who consequently developed urticaria and acute generalized exanthematous pustolosis (AGEP). Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG4 specific to Echinococcus granulosus antigens were detected by immunoblotting. Furthermore, the intracellular cytokine analysis revealed a prevalent T-helper 2 polarization. It can be reasoned that, while the presence of IgE specific to various E. granulosus allergens may be responsible for the chronic urticarial manifestations, the detection of IgG4 specific for E. granulosus antigens, forming immunocomplexes, may be related to the development of the AGEP.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Contact dermatitis 31 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We report a case of hypertrophic allergic contact dermatitis probably due to p-phenylenediamine (PPDA) in a 26-year-old female, which developed at the sites of application of a black hair dye to the skin. Histological examination revealed an eczematous process. The lesions subsided completely except for leukoderma that remained on the leg. Patch tests showed positive reactions to PPDA, p-aminophenol and Disperse Orange 3. PPDA, which was one of the components of the dye, was considered to be the primary sensitizer because it was the only substance able to reproduce at the patch test site both the hypertrophic pattern and the permanent leukoderma found in the patient's lesions. To explain the difference in reaction between PPDA and the other 2 para-group substances, we speculate that they are due to different quantities of reactive intermediates, oxidation products and free radicals, produced by these substances.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 8 nickel-sensitive subjects were given a gradually increasing daily oral intake of NiSO4 in water. The exposure lasted from between 91 and 178 days and the total intake ranged from between 113 and 278 mg of Ni++. While 6 subjects were continuously exposed over the entire period, the other 2 were exposed for 2 shorter periods with an interval between the 2 exposures of 84 and 63 days, respectively. Nickel exposure was well tolerated by all subjects, and there was no worsening of the cutaneous manifestations. Ni++ serum and urine concentrations were repeatedly assayed. A reduction of intestinal adsorption and an activation of the renal excretion were shown through an evaluation of the ratios of Ni++ serum concentration/Nr + cumulative oral intake, Ni++ urinary amount/nickel cumulative oral intake and Ni++ serum amount/Ni++ urine amount, The course of Ni++ faecal amounts, calculated indirectly, increased rapidly in time and was consistent with the other courses. In many subjects, the decrease in serum concentrations was followed by a slight increase. It is likely that this phenomenon is due to the release of epidermally stored nickel. These data seem to indicate that in some sensitive subjects, prolonged oral exposure to NiSO4 in water reduces the intestinal adsorption of nickel and activates its renal excretion, also promoting the mobilization of accumulated element.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Contact dermatitis 27 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Contact allergy to thimerosal (TH) has not been considered a marker for mercury allergy, since there is a low degree of cross-sensitivity to inorganic as well as to organic mercury salts. 40 subjects, who previously gave a positive patch test reaction only to thimerosal 0.1% pet. (Hermal), when simultaneously repatch-tested to solutions containing TH, mersalyl acid, p-amino-phenylmercuric acid, mercuric acetate and thiosalicylic acid, respectively, gave positive reactions only to TH. 36 out of 40 subjects were divided into 2 groups of 18 subjects and simultaneously repatch-tested to solutions containing TH, methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl), thiosalicylic acid, and, ethylmercury chloride (EtHgCl), respectively. EtHgCl was tested in the 1st group at 0.031% and in the 2nd group at 0.015%. The results showed that all subjects gave concomitant positive reactions to TH, EtHgCl and MeHgCl. EtHgCl 0.031% gave a higher number of +++ reactions than EtHgCl 0.015%, underlining the rôle of the solvent in these reactions. Patch test results in 300 consecutive patients to a standard series, to which MeHgCl was added, showed that MeHgCl and TH were never able to give isolated positive reactions, and that the concomitant positive reactions occurred in only 3.6% of subjects. In conclusion, our data seem to suggest that the positive reactions to TH found in our patients were due to EtHgCl, and that the structural similarities with MeHgCl were so close that the skin reacted against each as if they were identical.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To study the influence exerted by cutaneous ligands in nickel reactions we have evaluated the patch tests responses to 4 aqueous nickel salts (sulfate, chloride, nitrate, acetate) able to form different complexes with different geometry. Two groups of respectively 71 subjects who previously reacted only to nickel sulfate 5% petrolatum (pet) and of 30 subjects who previously reacted to nickel sulfate 5% pet and to at least 1 other transition metal, were simultaneously repatch-tested to 200 μg of Ni++ contained in nickel sulfate in pet and to 47 μg of Ni++ contained in 4 different aqueous nickel salts. Another 2 groups of 25 subjects with the same characteristics were simultaneously repatch tested to 200 μg of Ni++ in pet and to 12μg of aq Ni++ as in the first 2 groups. Visual score, total score, and mean value of the reactions were utilized in evaluating the degree of the responses. On testing to 200 μg of Ni++ in pet all the subjects were able to give positive responses. Whilst a higher percentage of the responses of 2+ degrees was found in subjects reacting to nickel sulfate 5% pet alone, a higher percentage of responses of 3+ degrees was observed in subjects reacting to more transition metals. On testing to 47 and 12 μg of aqueous Ni++ a large variability of responses to the single salts was observed in all the subjects. However, in subjects reacting to more metals there were either a greater number of multiple responses to 3 or 4 salts or responses stronger than those found in subjects reacting to nickel sulfate alone. Although patch testing cannot give us complete information about the degree of previous exposure, the results arising from the tests seem to demonstrate that the subjects allergic to nickel and other transition metals are more reactive than the subjects allergic only to nickel to the application of the same amounts of Ni++ contained in different salts. When considering the QSAR model, the difference in the sensitizing potential of the metal at the same penetration properties can depend on the possibility of combining with specific ligands. Therefore, it is likely that in subjects reacting to more metals there is a more uniform availability of cutaneous ligands which conditions the formation of complexes more immunogenic. The arising inflammatory reaction in these cases leads to a stronger but less specific response.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To verify if the counter-ion Cl− permits the same interactions between nickel and divalent metals with physicochemical similarities as the counter-ion SO4− does, 50 sensitive subjects to nickel sulfate 5% pet. who previously gave positive patch test reactions either to 8 μl of aq. nickel sulfate 0.1 M or to 8 μl of aq. nickel chloride 0.1 M, or to both, were patch retested simultaneously to 8 μl of respectively, aq. nickel sulfate 0.1 M and aq. nickel chloride 0.1 M, and to 8 (il of aq. mixed solutions containing, respectively, nickel chloride 0.1 M +magnesium chloride 0.3 M, nickel chloride 0.1 M+ zinc chloride 0.3 M, nickel chloride 0.1 M+zinc chloride 0.5 M, nickel chloride 0.1 M + manganese chloride 0.3 M, and nickel chloride 0.1 M + manganese chloride O.5 M. Whilst 4 subjects gave a positive patch test response to only nickel sulphate. 8 gave a positive response to nickel chloride alone and the remaining 38 gave a concomitant positive response to both. In all subjects who gave positive responses to nickel chloride, the chlorides of divalent metals were not able to inhibit or reduce the positive reaction. 25 healthy subjects patch tested to both single salts and mixed solutions, and all gave negative responses. 9 of the 50 subjects, 4 who previously gave positive reactions to only nickel chloride 0.1 M, and 5 with concomitant reactions of equal intensity to both nickel chloride and nickel sulfate 0.1 M, were patch retested simultaneously to 8 μ1 of, respectively, aq. nickel sulfate 0.1 M, aq. nickel chloride 0.1 M and aq. mixed solutions containing nickel sulfate (0.1 M) mixed with sulfates (0.3 M) and nickel chloride (0.1 M) mixed with chlorides of Mg, Zn, Mn (0.3 M). Whilst the mixed sulfate solutions were able to reduce nickel sulfale, 0.1 M patch test positive reactions, those containing chlorides, at all concentrations tested, did not inhibit the nickel chloride reactions in any of the subjects. The results of the tests to chlorides, compared to those reached on testing to sulfates of the same metals, lead us to hypothesize that the anion probably affects the uptake and local tissue distribution of the metal, modulating in this way, together with the individual cutaneous ligands, its effects.
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