Fischer carbenes complexes
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
4-Amino-1-azadienes 1 react with α,β-unsaturated Fischer carbene complexes at -40°C to give stereoselectively a variety of substituted 3H-4,5-dihydroazepines 3; similarly, 1-hydroxy-1-azadienes (α,β-unsaturated oximes) 6 afforded the corresponding azepine derivatives 7. Chiral, nonracemic carbene complexes 11 gave azepines 12-13 (d.e. = 40-44%) upon reaction with oxime 6a; the major isomers were obtained in a diastereomerically and enantiomerically pure form (45-50% overall yield) after crystallization. An X-ray structure of 12a allowed assignment of the absolute stereochemistry. The acid hydrolysis of azepines synthesized provided racemic and enantiomerically pure 1,6-dicarbonyl compounds (±)-5, (±)-9, and (-)-14, as well as diol (-)-15. The mechanism of the reaction of 1 and 2 was investigated by multinuclear (1H, 13C, 15N, and 183W) NMR characterization of four intermediates (A, B, C, and D) at low temperature. The experimental sequence of events involves: i) 1,2-nucleophilic addition of the unsubstituted imine nitrogen of 1 to the metal carbene function (zwitterion A, -60°C), ii) cyclization to the seven-membered ring with 1,2-migration of the pentacarbonyl metal (zwitterion B, -40°C), iii) reductive elimination and coordination of the metal to the amine nitrogen (intermediate C, -40°C), and iv) thermal decomplexation and tautomerization (intermediate D and compound 3, above -20°C).
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