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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Malignant fibrous histiocytoma ; p53 ; mdm2 ; Prognosis and immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  TP53 and MDM2 genes and their protein expression were evaluated in frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue from 27 patients with malignant fibrous histiocytoma to elucidate the relationship between them, their implication in tumor progression mechanisms and their possible diagnostic-prognostic value in malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA were used to establish two TP53 mutations (7.4%): a point mutation and a 63-bp duplication. Amplification of the MDM2 gene was observed in two tumors (7.4%) by means of Southern-blot analysis, one of them also carrying the TP53 point mutation. Immunohistochemical and Western-blot techniques were used to study nuclear accumulation of p53 and mdm2 proteins: 11 cases (40.7%) with p53 protein expression and thirteen cases (48.1%) with mdm2 protein expression were detected. We confirmed overexpression of mdm2 protein in eight of ten cases (80%) with p53 protein expression without TP53 gene mutation. Statistical analysis shows that simultaneous co-expression of p53 and mdm2 in malignant fibrous histiocytoma is significantly correlated with survival in absence of gene alteration in contrast to the lack of statistical correlation with survival of p53 protein expression alone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Esthesioneuroblastoma ; Neurosecretion ; Melanosomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Esthesioneuroblastoma (ESTH) is a neuroepithelial-cell-derived neoplasm of the olfactory mucosa composed of homogeneous small round cells which contain neurosecretory granules. Melanin has been detected in such tumours only occasionally. Here we describe a new case of ESTH with divergent differentiation. The primary neoplasm was found in a 67 year-old female, involving the left nasal and maxillary sinus; she died of cerebral metastasis ten months after diagnosis. Histologically only small round cells were seen, with S-100 and NSE positivity. Electron microscopy revealed neurosecretory granules and filaments, as well as the occasional presence of melanosomes. A nude mice xenograft line has been established, and is presently in its ninth transfer. Two cell types are present: small round-to-spindle shaped cells with neural features, and large epithelial-like ones. Both immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy confirm this dual differentiation, with the presence of membrane-bound dense-core neural secretion, as well as melanosomes of neuroectodermal origin. Additionally, an in vitro cell line has been established. Cytogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of both malignant human melanoma patterns; non-random abnormalities in chromosomes 1 and 6, extra copies of chromosome 7. Duplication of the long arm of chromosome 14, as seen in olfactory neuroblastoma, is also seen.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Giant-cell tumor of bone ; Chromosome aberrations ; Translocation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A new case of giant-cell tumour (GCT) of bone with benign histological features, clinical stage II, has been reviewed with immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. After short-term tissue culture the karyotype, using G-banding techniques, presented a consistent translocation t(12;19)(q13;q13). Nude mice xenografts of the tumour were unsuccessful after 6 months of follow-up. Presence of such chromosomal rearrangement may be related to locally aggressive, histologically benign giant-cell tumors of bone.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Endometrial stromal sarcoma ; Cytogenetics ; Chromosomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Uterine sarcomas are approximately 3% of all malignant uterine corpus tumours. Of these, the tumours that originate solely in the stromal elements of the uterine wall are infrequent and have not been well characterized cytogenetically. We report two cases of endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS), one low grade and one high grade, diagnosed by conventional histology, immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and cytogenetics. Morphologically clear-cut differential structures were seen at optical, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic levels, permitting a clear differential diagnosis. The low-grade ESS expressed hormonal receptors and vimentin, whereas the high-grade ESS showed no hormone receptors, high Ki-67 activity, and occasional cytokeratin-positive cells. Ultrastructurally, no malignant epithelial differentiation was seen in the tumour cells, but cilia were found in both cases. Cytogenetic study of the low-grade ESS showed pseudodiploid karyotype with chromosomes 6 and 20 rearranged. The high-grade ESS showed a complex karyotype with clonal numerical and structural anomalies. The chromosomes involved in the structural rearrangements were 1, 3, 6, 7, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, and 21.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: During hyposensitization therapy with aluminium-precipitated antigen solutions, a small % of patients develop persistent subcutaneous nodules at the injection site; the existence of delayed sensitivity to aluminium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these nodules. We studied the prevalence of aluminium sensitivity (using patch, prick and intradermal tests) and common contact allergens (TRUE Test™) in 20 healthy subjects, and in 40 patients treated with aluminium-containing extracts, 20 of whom had persistent subcutaneous nodules that remained for more than 2 months, the other half having no nodular reactions or nodules that remained for less than 2 months. Aluminium sensitivity was found only in those patients of the treated group who had persistent nodular reactions, 4 cases of positivity to an aluminium chloride patch test being found. All 4 cases were women, nodules remained for more than 6 months, and intracutaneous tests were negative. 3 of them also had contact sensitivity to nickel. In 2 cases, nodules were removed for histological and histochemical examination, showing non-specific inflammatory granulomas, and aluminium crystals being found in only 1 case. It is concluded that delayed sensitivity to aluminium appears to be implicated in the pathogenesis of persistent nodular reactions, but sensitivity to aluminium was not found in patients treated with aluminium-precipitated extracts without persistent nodular reactions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aims:  To evaluate the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in an attempt to find new, potentially significant, prognostic markers.Methods and results:  Clinical data and follow-up, histopathological features (pattern, cell size, thickness, mitoses, vascular invasion, lymphocytic infiltration) and immunohistochemical detection [CK20, thyroid transcription factor (TTF-1), chromogranin A, synaptophysin, p53, Ki67, Fli-1, CD99, c-Kit] were evaluated in 20 cases of MCC. Fli-1 and CD99 were detected in 90% and 55% of cases, respectively. Tumour size 〉 30 mm, stage II, ‘absent’ lymphocytic infiltration, and the presence of 〉 50% of Ki67+ tumour cells, were found to be prognostic indicators of disease-free interval (DFI), but only ‘absent’ lymphocytic infiltration constituted an independent prognostic factor of DFI after multivariate analysis. For overall survival, the same variables, together with local recurrence and lymph node involvement, had prognostic significance, with only local recurrence as an independent prognostic factor after multivariate analysis.Conclusions:  Absence of lymphocytic infiltration and Ki67 immunoreactivity in more than 50% of tumour cells should be evaluated in conjunction with other well-known prognostic markers in MCC. Furthermore, recognizing that Fli-1 and CD99 expression is commonly found in MCC by immunohistochemistry may avoid misinterpretation in the differential diagnosis of MCC with other small round cell tumours.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Erythrophagocytosis is a characteristic feature of tumour cells in malignant histiocytosis, some leukaemias, lymphomas, and also reactive histiocytes in the haemophagocytic syndrome associated with a variety of infections and neoplasms. It has also been found exceptionally in metastatic malignant epithelial cells in bone marrow and lymph nodes. We present two cases, a cutaneous malignant melanoma and an acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma, in which erythrophagocytosis by tumour cells was demonstrable by both light and electron microscopy.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Methods and results:The melanocytic and squamous nature of these cells was supported by the immunohistochemical detection of HMB45, S100, and NKI-C3 in the former, and cytokeratin and EMA in the latter, and at ultrastructural level by the presence of melanosomes and tonofilaments, respectively.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusions:This is, to our knowledge, the first documented report of erythrophagocytic tumour cells in human melanomas and primary carcinomas. Biological considerations apart, this unusual feature can prove to be of value to avoid a misdiagnosis of a variety of haematopoietic malignancies.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical characterization of the so-called giant multinucleate cells in cutaneous collagenomasAims:  This study was undertaken to compare the histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of the so-called giant multinucleatecells in cutaneous collagenomas: giant-cell collagenoma and solitary sclerotic fibroma.Methods and results:  We studied four collagenomas: one giant-cell collagenoma and three solitary sclerotic fibromas. All the cases showed an indolent clinical presentation and were histologically constituted by a well-demarcated dome-shaped proliferation of coarse collagen bundles with a varying number of interspersed giant multinucleate cells and stellate mononuclear cells. The immunohistochemical study on paraffin sections revealed that neoplastic cells in both collagenomas were vimentin and CD34-positive, whereas FXIIIa was only expressed in solitary sclerotic fibromas. In regard to the so-called giant multinucleate cells, we have ultrastructurally found that these cells were ‘real’ multinucleate cells in giant-cell collagenoma, whereas in solitary sclerotic fibromas they consisted of closely packed aggregates of individual stellate mononuclear cells. Moreover, perinuclear cisternae focally containing finely textured material of moderate density were unexpectedly found in giant cells of giant-cell collagenoma, a finding which was not observed in solitary sclerotic fibromas. Additionally, a characteristic cell–cell interaction between tumour cells and mast cells was encountered in all collagenomas.Conclusions:  This study supports a distinctive immunohistochemical and overall ultrastructural profile of giantmultinucleate cells in giant-cell collagenoma and solitary sclerotic fibroma, which suggests a different pattern of differentiation for these two related cutaneouslesions.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1524-4741
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0165-4608
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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