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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; ENZYMES ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; RNA ; DOMAIN ; BINDING ; SEQUENCE ; SEQUENCES ; RECOGNITION ; ENCODES ; gene expression ; ASSAY ; REGION ; REGIONS ; NUCLEUS ; DEGRADATION ; DOUBLE-STRANDED-RNA ; OVEREXPRESSION ; AU-RICH ELEMENTS ; SINGLE ; MOTIF ; INTERFERENCE ; regulation ; TRANSLATION ; LEVEL ; ENZYME ; ASSAYS ; ROLES ; CELL-DIVISION ; 3'-UNTRANSLATED REGION ; USA ; DEPLETION ; microbiology ; NOV ; DIVISION ; CYCLIN ; BRUCEI ; STEADY-STATE ; CYTOPLASM ; TURNOVER ; AFRICAN TRYPANOSOME ; MAJOR FRIEDLIN CHROMOSOME-1 ; PROCYCLIC FORM
    Abstract: In the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei nearly all control of gene expression is posttranscriptional; sequences in the 3'-untranslated regions of mRNAs determine the steady-state mRNA levels by regulation of RNA turnover. Here we investigate the roles of two related proteins, TbUBP1 and TbUBP2, containing a single RNA recognition motif, in trypanosome gene expression. TbUBP1 and TbUBP2 are in the cytoplasm and nucleus, comprise ca. 0.1% of the total protein, and are not associated with polysomes or RNA degradation enzymes. Overexpression of TbUBP2 upregulated the levels of several mRNAs potentially involved in cell division, including the CFB1 mRNA, which encodes a protein with a cyclin F-box domain. CFB1 regulation was mediated by the 3'-untranslated region and involved stabilization of the mRNA. Depletion of ThUBP2 and TbUBP1 inhibited growth and downregulated expression of the cyclin F box protein gene CFB2; trans splicing was unaffected. The results of pull-down assays indicated that all tested mRNAs were bound to TbUBP2 or TbUBP1, with some preference for CFBI. We suggest that TbUBP1 and TbUBP2 may be relatively nonspecific RNA-binding proteins and that specific effects of overexpression or depletion could depend on competition between various different proteins for RNA binding
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17873084
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  • 2
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE ; METABOLISM ; MECHANISM ; REDUCTION ; mechanisms ; BIOLOGY ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; SIGNAL ; ALPHA ; gene expression ; heat shock ; NUMBER ; STRESS ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; INCREASE ; mRNA ; LEVEL ; ENGLAND ; PROCESSING BODIES ; TRANSLATION INITIATION ; STRESS GRANULES ; P-BODIES ; TURNOVER ; AFRICAN TRYPANOSOME ; UNTRANSLATED REGION ; CYTOPLASMIC FOCI ; CELL BIOLOGY ; POSITION ; trypanosome ; Trypanosoma brucei ; BLOOD-STREAM ; eIF2 alpha ; LEISHMANIA-MAJOR ; MESSENGER-RNA DEGRADATION ; SPLICED-LEADER RNA ; stress granule
    Abstract: In trypanosomes there is an almost total reliance on post-transcriptional mechanisms to alter gene expression; here, heat shock was used to investigate the response to an environmental signal. Heat shock rapidly and reversibly induced a decrease in polysome abundance, and the consequent changes in mRNA metabolism were studied. Both heat shock and polysome dissociation were necessary for (1) a reduction in mRNA levels that was more rapid than normal turnover, (2) an increased number of P-body-like granules that contained DHH1, SCD6 and XRNA, (3) the formation of stress granules that remained largely separate from the P-body-like granules and localise to the periphery of the cell and, (4) an increase in the size of a novel focus located at the posterior pole of the cell that contain XRNA, but neither DHH1 nor SCD6. The response differed from mammalian cells in that neither the decrease in polysomes nor stress-granule formation required phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha at the position homologous to that of serine 51 in mammalian eIF2 alpha and in the occurrence of a novel XRNA-focus
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18713834
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  • 3
    Abstract: In trypanosomes, the predominant mechanisms of regulation of gene expression are post-transcriptional. The DEAD-box RNA helicase DHH1 was identified in a screen for gene products that are necessary for the instability of the GPI-PLC mRNA in insect-stage trypanosomes. Expression of an ATPase-deficient dhh1 mutant caused a rapid growth arrest associated with a decrease in polysomes, an increase in P-bodies and a slight decrease in average mRNA levels. However, the effect of dhh1 mutant expression on both turnover and translational repression of mRNAs was selective. Whereas there was little effect on the stability of constitutive mRNAs, the control of a large cohort of developmentally regulated mRNAs was reversed; many mRNAs normally downregulated in insect-stage trypanosomes were stabilized and many mRNAs normally upregulated decreased in level. One stabilised mRNA, ISG75, was characterised further. Despite the overall decrease in polysomes, the proportion of the ISG75 mRNA in polysomes was unchanged and the result was ISG75 protein accumulation. Our data show that specific mRNAs can escape DHH1-mediated translational repression. In trypanosomes, DHH1 has a selective role in determining the levels of developmentally regulated mRNAs.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20124414
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  • 4
    Keywords: CELLS ; SURVIVAL ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; RNA ; SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE ; COMPLEX ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; ACID ; NO ; HUMANS ; EVOLUTION ; FISSION YEAST ; DEGRADATION ; DEVELOPMENTAL REGULATION ; molecular biology ; molecular ; RE ; GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS ; INCREASE ; mRNA ; ENZYME ; HUMAN-CELLS ; ENGLAND ; BRUCEI ; trypanosome ; BLOOD-STREAM STAGE ; CCR4-NOT COMPLEX ; INVARIANT SURFACE GLYCOPROTEINS ; POLY(A) TAIL
    Abstract: The eukaryotic Ccr4/Caf1/Not complex is involved in deadenylation of mRNAs. The Caf1 and Ccr4 subunits both potentially have deadenylating enzyme activity. We investigate here the roles of Ccr4 and Caf1 in deadenylation in two organisms that separated early in eukaryotic evolution: humans and trypanosomes. In Trypanosoma brucei, we found a complex containing CAF1, NOT1, NOT2 and NOT5, DHH1 and a possible homologue of Caf130; no homologue of Ccr4 was found. Trypanosome CAF1 has deadenylation activity, and is essential for cell survival. Depletion of trypanosome CAF1 delayed deadenylation and degradation of constitutively expressed mRNAs. Human cells have two isozymes of Caf1: simultaneous depletion of both inhibited degradation of an unstable reporter mRNA. In both species, depletion of Caf1 homologues inhibited deadenylation of bulk RNA and resulted in an increase in average poly(A) tail length
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18442996
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: The well-characterized association between HLA-B*27:05 and protection against HIV disease progression has been linked to immunodominant HLA-B*27:05-restricted CD8 + T-cell responses toward the conserved Gag KK10 (residues 263 to 272) and polymerase (Pol) KY9 (residues 901 to 909) epitopes. We studied the impact of the 3 amino acid differences between HLA-B*27:05 and the closely related HLA-B*27:02 on the HIV-specific CD8 + T-cell response hierarchy and on immune control of HIV. Genetic epidemiological data indicate that both HLA-B*27:02 and HLA-B*27:05 are associated with slower disease progression and lower viral loads. The effect of HLA-B*27:02 appeared to be consistently stronger than that of HLA-B*27:05. In contrast to HLA-B*27:05, the immunodominant HIV-specific HLA-B*27:02-restricted CD8 + T-cell response is to a Nef epitope (residues 142 to 150 [VW9]), with Pol KY9 subdominant and Gag KK10 further subdominant. This selection was driven by structural differences in the F pocket, mediated by a polymorphism between these two HLA alleles at position 81. Analysis of autologous virus sequences showed that in HLA-B*27:02-positive subjects, all three of these CD8 + T-cell responses impose selection pressure on the virus, whereas in HLA-B*27:05-positive subjects, there is no Nef VW9-mediated selection pressure. These studies demonstrate that HLA-B*27:02 mediates protection against HIV disease progression that is at least as strong as or stronger than that mediated by HLA-B*27:05. In combination with the protective Gag KK10 and Pol KY9 CD8 + T-cell responses that dominate HIV-specific CD8 + T-cell activity in HLA-B*27:05-positive subjects, a Nef VW9-specific response is additionally present and immunodominant in HLA-B*27:02-positive subjects, mediated through a polymorphism at residue 81 in the F pocket, that contributes to selection pressure against HIV. IMPORTANCE CD8 + T cells play a central role in successful control of HIV infection and have the potential also to mediate the eradication of viral reservoirs of infection. The principal means by which protective HLA class I molecules, such as HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01, slow HIV disease progression is believed to be via the particular HIV-specific CD8 + T cell responses restricted by those alleles. We focus here on HLA-B*27:05, one of the best-characterized protective HLA molecules, and the closely related HLA-B*27:02, which differs by only 3 amino acids and which has not been well studied in relation to control of HIV infection. We show that HLA-B*27:02 is also protective against HIV disease progression, but the CD8 + T-cell immunodominance hierarchy of HLA-B*27:02 differs strikingly from that of HLA-B*27:05. These findings indicate that the immunodominant HLA-B*27:02-restricted Nef response adds to protection mediated by the Gag and Pol specificities that dominate anti-HIV CD8 + T-cell activity in HLA-B*27:05-positive subjects.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-02-14
    Description: HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) play an important role in the control of HIV-1 subtype B or C infection. However, the role of CTLs in HIV-1 subtype A/E infection still remains unclear. Here we investigated the association of HLA class I alleles with clinical outcomes in treatment-naive Vietnamese infected with subtype A/E virus. We found that HLA-C*12:02 was significantly associated with lower plasma viral loads (pVL) and higher CD4 counts and that the HLA-A*29:01-B*07:05-C*15:05 haplotype was significantly associated with higher pVL and lower CD4 counts than those for individuals without these respective genotypes. Nine Pol and three Nef mutations were associated with at least one HLA allele in the HLA-A*29:01-B*07:05-C*15:05 haplotype, with a strong negative correlation between the number of HLA-associated Pol mutations and CD4 count as well as a positive correlation with pVL for individuals with these HLA alleles. The results suggest that the accumulation of mutations selected by CTLs restricted by these HLA alleles affects HIV control. IMPORTANCE Most previous studies on HLA association with disease progression after HIV-1 infection have been performed on cohorts infected with HIV-1 subtypes B and C, whereas few such population-based studies have been reported for cohorts infected with the Asian subtype A/E virus. In this study, we analyzed the association of HLA class I alleles with clinical outcomes for 536 HIV-1 subtype A/E-infected Vietnamese individuals. We found that HLA-C*12:02 is protective, while the HLA haplotype HLA-A*29:01-B*07:05-C*15:05 is deleterious. The individuals with HIV-1 mutations associated with at least one of the HLA alleles in the deleterious HLA haplotype had higher plasma viral loads and lower CD4 counts than those of individuals without the mutations, suggesting that viral adaptation and escape from HLA-mediated immune control occurred. The present study identifies a protective allele and a deleterious haplotype for HIV-1 subtype A/E infection which are different from those identified for cohorts infected with HIV-1 subtypes B and C.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: The highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen ( HLA ) locus encodes cell surface proteins that are critical for immunity. HLA-A expression levels vary in an allele-dependent manner, diversifying allele-specific effects beyond peptide-binding preference. Analysis of 9763 HIV-infected individuals from 21 cohorts shows that higher HLA-A levels confer poorer control of HIV. Elevated HLA-A expression provides enhanced levels of an HLA-A–derived signal peptide that specifically binds and determines expression levels of HLA-E, the ligand for the inhibitory NKG2A natural killer (NK) cell receptor. HLA-B haplotypes that favor NKG2A-mediated NK cell licensing (i.e., education) exacerbate the deleterious effect of high HLA-A on HIV control, consistent with NKG2A-mediated inhibition impairing NK cell clearance of HIV-infected targets. Therapeutic blockade of HLA-E:NKG2A interaction may yield benefit in HIV disease.
    Keywords: Genetics, Immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Keywords: Key words HLA ; Microsatellite loci ; Microsatellite typing ; Human ; MHC
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The human genome contains a large number of interspersed microsatellite repeats which exhibit a high degree of polymorphism and are inherited in a Mendelian fashion, making them extremely useful genetic markers. Several microsatellites have been described in the HLA region, but allele nomenclature, a set of broadly distributed controls, and typing methods have not been standardized, which has resulted in discrepant microsatellite data between laboratories. In this report we present a detailed protocol for genotyping microsatellites using a semi-automated fluorescence-based method. Twelve microsatellites within or near the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were typed in the 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop homozygous typing cell lines (HTCs) and alleles were designated based on size. All loci were sequenced in two HTCs providing some information on the level of complexity of the repeat sequence. A comparison of allele size obtained by genotyping versus that obtained by direct sequencing showed minor discrepancies in some cases, but these were not unexpected given the technical differences in the methodologies. Fluorescence-based typing of microsatellites in the MHC described herein is highly efficient, accurate, and reproducible, and will allow comparison of results between laboratories.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Keywords: Key words Interferon gamma ; Polymorphism ; Promoter ; AIOS ; 3′UTR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is a multifunctional cytokine that is essential in the development of Th1 cells and in cellular responses to a variety of intracellular pathogens including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). We screened genomic DNA samples from a predominately Caucasian male population of HIV-infected and healthy donors for polymorphisms in the human IFNG gene from –777 to +5608 by single-stranded conformational polymorphism. Surprisingly, the proximal promoter (–777 to transcription start) is invariant as no polymorphisms were found in over 100 samples tested. However, further screening revealed polymorphisms in other regions of the gene including a single base insertion in a poly-T tract in the first intron, three single base pair substitutions in the third intron, and another single base pair substitution in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to investigate whether these variants have altered DNA-binding abilities, since intronic enhancer elements have been reported for the IFNG gene. Oligonucleotides constructed for two third intron variants showed no difference in DNA-binding abilities as compared with wild-type sequences. However, the 3′UTR variant showed the formation of unique DNA-binding complexes to radiolabeled oligonucleotide probes as compared with the wild-type sequence. The influence of a CA-repeat microsatellite on AIDS disease progression in HIV-1 seroconverters was tested by a Cox proportional hazards model. There is no evidence of an association between alleles and infection with HIV-1 or progression to AIDS. We report an invariant proximal human IFNG promoter and the existence of multiple intronic variants and a potentially functional 3′UTR polymorphism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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