Polymerase chain reaction
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Genetic differences in the metabolism of carcinogens may codetermine individual predisposition to cancer. Cytochrome P-4501A1 (CYP1A1) metabolically activates precarcinogens in cigarette smoke, such as benzo(a)pyrene, which is also an inducer of CYP1A1. Two point mutations have been reported, m1 in the 3′-flanking region (6235T to C), and m2 within exon 7 (4889A to G), the latter leading to an isoleucine to valine exchange. In the Japanese population ml and m2 are correlated with lung cancer, suggesting an increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking related lung cancer. We studied 142 lung cancer and 171 reference patients in an ethnically homogeneous German group for m1 and m2 mutations by restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found in the distribution of m1 alleles between lung cancer and controls; the frequency was 8.5% and 7.3% of the alleles, respectively (odds ratio = 1.17). A trend to an overrepresentation of ml alleles was observed among 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (odds ratio = 1.65). In contrast, the frequency of m2 alleles in lung cancer patients was twofold higher (6.7%) than in the reference group (3.2%; odds ratio = 2.16; 95% confidence limits 0.96–5.11, P = 0.033); the odds ratio of m2 alleles in squamous cell carcinoma was 2.51 (95% confidence limits 0.85–7.05, P = 0.05). There was a close genetic linkage of m2 to m1 (10 of 11 reference patients), but a significantly higher number of cancer patients showed no linkage compared to the controls (odds ratio = 8.89, 95% confidence limits 0.83–433, P = 0.04). Thus no association was found between presence of ml alleles and lung cancer, but, in contrast, m2 alleles proved as a hereditary risk factor, especially if not linked with m1 alleles.
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