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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Prävention zwischen Evidenz und Eminenz; 15. Jahrestagung des Deutschen Netzwerks Evidenzbasierte Medizin; 20140313-20140315; Halle; DOC14ebmC2d /20140310/
    Publication Date: 2014-03-11
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; human ; PROTEINS ; PATIENT ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; CONTRAST ; CYCLE ; papillomavirus ; FREQUENCY ; AGE ; MUTATION ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; inactivation ; human papillomavirus ; TYPE-16 ; WILD-TYPE ; MUTATIONS ; HPV ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; HEAD ; TOBACCO ; CANCER-RESEARCH ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; INVASIVE CERVICAL-CANCER ; NECK CANCERS ; ORAL CAVITY ; ORAL-CANCER ; DRINKING ; P53 STATUS ; SUBSET
    Abstract: TP53 mutations were analyzed in 35 human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA-positive cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx and in 35 HPV DNA-negative cancers matched by subsite, country, sex, age, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Wild-type TP53 was found more frequently in cancer specimens that contained HPV16 DNA than in those that did not. All 14 HPV16 DNA-positive cancers in HPV16 E6 antibody-positive patients contained wild-type TP53, compared with 50% of corresponding HPV DNA-negative cancers (matched odds ratio, infinity; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-infinity). In contrast, for HPV16 DNA-positive cancers in E6-negative patients, wild-type TP53 frequency was similar to that in corresponding HPV DNA-negative cancers (matched odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-5.4). TP53 inactivation is a major mechanism of HPV-related carcinogenesis in the oral cavity and oropharynx. The role of HPV in cancers also containing TP53 mutations remains to be clarified
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14744758
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; carcinoma ; DENSITY ; SITE ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; DIFFERENTIATION ; INFECTION ; MARKER ; E7 ; papillomavirus ; ASSOCIATION ; antibodies ; antibody ; PARTICLES ; IN-SITU ; WOMEN ; MARKERS ; human papillomavirus ; VIRUS-LIKE PARTICLES ; HPV ; CERVICAL-CARCINOMA ; Jun ; HEAD ; CARCINOMAS ; squamous cell carcinoma ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE-16 ; INFECTIONS ; NATURAL-HISTORY ; NECK CANCERS ; ABSENCE ; ELISA ; PROGRAM ; SUBSET ; ASSOCIATIONS ; TUMORIGENESIS ; INTERVAL ; CELL-CARCINOMA ; oral cancer ; HPV16 viral load ; oropharyngeal cancer ; SEXUAL-BEHAVIOR
    Abstract: A considerable subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are positive for human papillomavirus (HPV); however, delineating etiologically-associated HPV infections from SCCs with concurrent HPV infection unrelated to tumorigenesis is challenging. Viral load assessment in biopsy specimens may help facilitate such differentiation. HPV16 viral load and serologic markers were assessed among oral and oropharyngeal cases from a multinational study conducted by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). HPV16 viral load, measured semi-quantitatively by PCR-enzyme immunnassay, was dichotomized as high or low based on the median optical density value. Serologic antibodies to HPV16 virus-like particles (VLPs) and to HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins were measured by ELISA. Compared to HPV DNA-negative cases (n = 852), HPV16 DNA-positive cases with high viral load (n = 26) were significantly more likely to originate in the oropharynx (odds ratio [OR], 12.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2-27.5) and, after adjustment for tumor site (AdjOR), have antibodies against HPV16 VLPs (AdjOR, 14.6; 95% Cl, 6.0-35.6), E6 (AdjOR, 57.6; 95% CI, 21.4-155.3) and E7 (AdjOR, 25.6; 95% CI, 9.3-70.8). HPV16 DNA-positive cases with low viral load (n = 27) were more commonly oropharyngeal (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.2) and seropositive for HPV16 VI Ps (AdjOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.9), E6 (AdjOR, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.7-14.0) and E7 (AdjOR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.7-16.3), compared to HPV DNA-negative cases; the associations, however, were neither as strong nor as significant as the associations for high viral load. As there appears to be a strong association between HPV16 serologic markers and viral load, in the absence of data on serologic markers, HPV16 viral load may be used to help delineate the subset of HPV16 DNA-positive oral and oropharyngeal cancers that may be the consequence of HPV infection. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15688391
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; human ; CT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; INFECTION ; SKIN ; papillomavirus ; VARIANTS ; virus ; carcinogenicity ; PROGRESSION ; WOMEN ; etiology ; smoking ; cervical cancer ; CERVICAL-CANCER ; CERVIX ; PATHOGENESIS ; human papillomavirus ; HPV ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; DIETARY ; TOBACCO ; UTERINE CERVIX ; HERPES-SIMPLEX-VIRUS ; TYPE-2 ; INVASIVE CERVICAL-CANCER ; SKIN-CANCER ; INTEGRATION ; WORLDWIDE ; VARIANT ; HUMAN CANCER ; HIV ; COLLABORATIVE REANALYSIS ; CANCERS ; PERSPECTIVE ; HERPES-SIMPLEX ; nonmelanoma skin cancer ; LONG-TERM USE ; CONTRACEPTIVES ; herpes simplex virus ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPES ; INDIVIDUAL DATA
    Abstract: The causal role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in all cancers of the uterine cervix has been firmly established biologically and epidemiologically. Most cancers of the vagina and anus are likewise caused by HPV, as are a fraction of cancers of the vulva, penis, and oropharynx. HPV-16 and -18 account for about 70% of cancers of the cervix, vagina, and anus and for about 30-40% of cancers of the vulva, penis, and oropharynx. Other cancers causally linked to HPV are non-melanoma skin cancer and cancer of the conjunctiva. Although HPV is a necessary cause of cervical cancer, it is not a sufficient cause. Thus, other cofactors are necessary for progression from cervical HPV infection to cancer. Long-term use of hormonal contraceptives, high parity, tobacco smoking, and co-infection with HIV have been identified as established cofactors; co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2), immunosuppression, and certain dietary deficiencies are other probable cofactors. Genetic and immunological host factors and viral factors other than type, such as variants of type, viral load and viral integration, are likely to be important but have not been clearly identified. (c) 2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16949995
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  • 5
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; NECK-CANCER ; pooled analysis ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; ALCOHOL-DRINKING ; EPIDEMIOLOGY CONSORTIUM ; INTERNATIONAL HEAD ; SENSITIVITY PROTEIN MUS308 ; TOBACCO-RELATED CANCERS
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p 〈= 5 x 10(-7)). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1 x 10(-8)) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p = 2 x 10(-8)) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 x 10(-8); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 x 10(-9); and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21437268
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  • 6
    Keywords: immunohistochemistry ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; HEAD ; MULTICENTER ; ORAL-CANCER ; NECK-CANCER ; RISK-FACTOR ; OROPHARYNGEAL CANCERS ; HPV INFECTIONS ; INTERNATIONAL AGENCY
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally implicated in a subset of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT). METHODS: Associations between type-specific HPV antibodies were examined among 1496 UADT cancer case subjects and 1425 control subjects by estimating odds ratios (ORs) in logistic regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders. The agreement between serology and tumor markers of HPV infection, including presence of HPV DNA and p16 expression, were examined in a subset of tumors. RESULTS: HPV16 L1 seropositivity was associated with increased risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer (OR = 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03 to 3.65; OR = 8.60, 95% CI = 5.21 to 14.20, respectively). HPV16 E6 antibodies were present in 30.2% of oropharyngeal case subjects and only 0.8% of control subjects (OR = 132.0, 95% CI = 65.29 to 266.86). Combined seropositivity to HPV16 E6 and E7 was rare (n = 1 of 1425 control subjects). An agreement of 67% was observed between HPV16 E6 serology and the corresponding presence of an HPV-related cancer: four of six HPV DNA-positive/p16-overexpressing tumors were HPV16 E6 antibody positive. An HPV16 independent association was observed for HPV18 and oropharyngeal cancer (OR = 8.14, 95% CI = 2.21 to 29.99 for HPV18 E6 seropositivity) and HPV6 and laryngeal cancer (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.46 to 7.24 for HPV6 E7 seropositivity). CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm an important role for HPV16 infection in oropharyngeal cancer. HPV16 E6 antibodies are strongly associated with HPV16-related oropharyngeal cancers. Continuing efforts are needed to consider both HPV serology and p16 staining as biomarkers relevant to the etiology and natural history of HPV16-related oropharyngeal tumors. These results also support a marginal role for HPV18 in oropharyngeal cancer and HPV6 in laryngeal cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23503618
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  • 7
    Keywords: IN-SITU ; NEOPLASIA ; ASSAY ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; HEAD ; VACCINE ; PREVALENCE ; TRENDS ; NECK-CANCER
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) contribution in vulvar intraepithelial lesions (VIN) and invasive vulvar cancer (IVC) is not clearly established. This study provides novel data on HPV markers in a large series of VIN and IVC lesions. METHODS: Histologically confirmed VIN and IVC from 39 countries were assembled at the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO). HPV-DNA detection was done by polymerase chain reaction using SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers and genotyping by reverse hybridisation line probe assay (LiPA25) (version 1). IVC cases were tested for p16(INK4a) by immunohistochemistry (CINtec histology kit, ROCHE). An IVC was considered HPV driven if both HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) overexpression were observed simultaneously. Data analyses included algorithms allocating multiple infections to calculate type-specific contribution and logistic regression models to estimate adjusted prevalence (AP) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of 2296 cases, 587 were VIN and 1709 IVC. HPV-DNA was detected in 86.7% and 28.6% of the cases respectively. Amongst IVC cases, 25.1% were both HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) positive. IVC cases were largely keratinising squamous cell carcinoma (KSCC) (N=1234). Overall prevalence of HPV related IVC cases was highest in younger women for any histological subtype. SCC with warty or basaloid features (SCC_WB) (N=326) were more likely to be HPV and p16(INK4a) positive (AP=69.5%, CI=63.6-74.8) versus KSCC (AP=11.5%, CI=9.7-13.5). HPV 16 was the commonest type (72.5%) followed by HPV 33 (6.5%) and HPV 18 (4.6%). Enrichment from VIN to IVC was significantly high for HPV 45 (8.5-fold). CONCLUSION: Combined data from HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) testing are likely to represent a closer estimate of the real fraction of IVC induced by HPV. Our results indicate that HPV contribution in invasive vulvar cancer has probably been overestimated. HPV 16 remains the major player worldwide.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23886586
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  • 8
    Keywords: CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; ORAL-CANCER ; UPPER AERODIGESTIVE TRACT ; occupational exposures ; ALCOHOL-DRINKING ; SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES ; EPIDEMIOLOGY CONSORTIUM ; INTERNATIONAL HEAD ; OROPHARYNGEAL-CANCER
    Abstract: Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 - 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 - 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. What's new? Head and neck cancer is among the most common and increasing cancers in the world. Besides smoking, alcohol drinking, and human papilloma virus infections, low socioeconomic status has been implicated as one of the most important risk factors for this cancer type. This large multinational study authoritatively confirmed that lower education status and lower income are associated with increased risk for head and neck cancer development. Smoking and alcohol consumption could not entirely explain the risk associated with low socioeconomic factors, and therefore, as the authors argue, need to be more explicitly recognized in the etiology associated with head and neck cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24996155
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  • 9
    Keywords: carcinoma ; COHORT ; MARKERS ; PREVALENCE ; EARLY PROTEINS ; INVASIVE CERVICAL-CANCER ; NECK-CANCER ; WORLDWIDE ; oropharyngeal cancer ; GENOTYPE ATTRIBUTION
    Abstract: Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The current study sought to evaluate the extent to which HPV16 E6 antibodies are present before diagnosis of anogenital cancers within the same cohort. Methods Four hundred incident anogenital cancers (273 cervical, 24 anal, 67 vulvar, 12 vaginal, and 24 penile cancers) with prediagnostic blood samples (collected on average 3 and 8 years before diagnosis for cervix and noncervix cancers, respectively) and 718 matched controls were included. Plasma was analyzed for antibodies against HPV16 E6 and multiple other HPV proteins and genotypes and evaluated in relation to risk using unconditional logistic regression. Results HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in 29.2% of individuals (seven of 24 individuals) who later developed anal cancer compared with 0.6% of controls (four of 718 controls) who remained cancer free (odds ratio [OR], 75.9; 95% CI, 17.9 to 321). HPV16 E6 seropositivity was less common for cancers of the cervix (3.3%), vagina (8.3%), vulva (1.5%), and penis (8.3%). No associations were seen for non-type 16 HPV E6 antibodies, apart from anti-HPV58 E6 and anal cancer (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 33.1). HPV16 E6 seropositivity tended to increase in blood samples drawn closer in time to cancer diagnosis. Conclusion HPV16 E6 seropositivity is relatively common before diagnosis of anal cancer but rare for other HPV-related anogenital cancers.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25667279
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  • 10
    Keywords: SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; HEAD ; UNITED-STATES ; INCIDENCE RATES ; INVASIVE CERVICAL-CANCER ; ORAL-CANCER ; NECK-CANCER ; OROPHARYNGEAL CANCERS ; DATA-COLLECTION ; TONSILLAR CARCINOMA
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer in many developed countries has been attributed to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infections. Recently, HPV16 E6 serology has been identified as a promising early marker for oropharyngeal cancer. Therefore, characterization of HPV16 E6 seropositivity among individuals without cancer is warranted. METHODS: A total of 4,666 controls were pooled from several studies of cancer and HPV seropositivity, all tested within the same laboratory. HPV16 E6 seropositive controls were classified as having (i) moderate [mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) 〉/= 484 and 〈1,000] or (ii) high seroreactivity (MFI 〉/= 1,000). Associations of moderate and high HPV16 E6 seroreactivity with (i) demographic risk factors; and seropositivity for (ii) other HPV16 proteins (E1, E2, E4, E7, and L1), and (iii) E6 proteins from non-HPV16 types (HPV6, 11, 18, 31, 33, 45, and 52) were evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-two (0.7%) HPV16 E6 seropositive controls were identified; 17 (0.4%) with moderate and 15 (0.3%) with high seroreactivity. High HPV16 E6 seroreactivity was associated with former smoking [odds ratio (OR), 5.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-51.8], and seropositivity against HPV16 L1 (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3-15.4); E2 (OR, 7.7; 95% CI, 1.4-29.1); multiple HPV16 proteins (OR, 25.3; 95% CI, 2.6-119.6 for three HPV16 proteins beside E6) and HPV33 E6 (OR, 17.7; 95% CI, 1.9-81.8). No associations were observed with moderate HPV16 E6 seroreactivity. CONCLUSIONS: High HPV16 E6 seroreactivity is rare among individuals without diagnosed cancer and was not explained by demographic factors. IMPACT: Some HPV16 E6 seropositive individuals without diagnosed HPV-driven cancer, especially those with seropositivity against other HPV16 proteins, may harbor a biologically relevant HPV16 infection. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(4); 683-9. (c)2015 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25623733
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