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  • 1
    Call number: QZ365WP870:430
    Keywords: Breast / Cancer
    Pages: xvi, 490 p.
    ISBN: 9780387751146
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-7339
    Keywords: Quality of life ; Breast cancer ; Coping ; Single-item linear-analogue scale ; Validation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Subjective well-being is a major aspect of quality of life and is therefore increasingly used as an endpoint in clinical trials. It is influenced to a great extent by the complex process of coping with the disease and its treatment. Assessment of coping is methodologically demanding, especially in large clinical trials. We therefore developed a single-item measure, the Perceived Adjustment to Chronic Illness Scale (PACIS), as an indicator of coping, complementary to other scales related to quality of life. We sought to validate this instrument in a subgroup of 121 Swiss patients participating in the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) adjuvant trials. At months 3 and 6 of adjuvant treatment PACIS showed a distinct pattern of highly significant rank correlations with several disease-and treatment-related problem areas from the Herschbach coping inventory (FBBK); 42% of the variance of PACIS at month 3 was explained by the FBBK (P=0.0001). The portion of explained variance was considerably higher for the Italian-(70%) than for the German-speaking (30%) subgroups. Patients who rated more effort to cope with their disease on PACIS indicated more frequent use of 3 of 15 coping strategies in relation to psychological distress. These were “crying and becoming desperate”, “taking tranquillizers and alcohol” and “other people are far worse off”. These three coping strategies may define a high-risk group for poor psychosocial outcome. Patients whose PACIS scores showed that it required less effort to cope tended to use the strategy “seeing a positive side of the problem”. We conclude that PACIS can be used as a global indicator of the coping process in large multicultural clinical trials of adjuvant therapy for breast cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-7339
    Keywords: Key words Tamoxifen ; Cytotoxic treatment ; Cellular immunity ; Breast cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects and interaction of endocrine and cytotoxic adjuvant treatment on measures of cellular immunity were assessed in 41 stage I–II breast cancer patients from International Breast Cancer Study Group trials. Counts of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets [(T, T4, T8, B, natural killer (NK) and activated T (AT) cells] were assessed by flow cytometry immediately before adjuvant therapy at baseline and on day 1 of the 3rd cycle. Twenty-two patients received cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF), 7 CMF and tamoxifen (TAM), and 12 TAM alone. On day 1 of the 3rd cycle the counts of total lymphocytes (P=0.003 ) and all lymphocyte subsets (P〈0.05) except AT cells were significantly lower than baseline in the CMF treatment group. There was no significant change in the CMF+TAM or in the TAM treatment group. The combination of CMF and TAM resulted in less pronounced decrease in lymphocyte and subset counts from baseline to day 1 of the 3rd cycle. It seems possible that there is an interaction between TAM with CMF that affects lymphocyte and lymphocyte subset counts during cytotoxic treatment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0646
    Keywords: phase II trial ; Nimustine ; ACNU ; small cell lung cancer ; second line treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Thirty-nine previously treated patients received Nimustine in a phase II trial to test the therapeutic activity in refractory small cell lung cancer. Nimustine was given as a direct i.v. injection of 100 mg/m2 with treatments repeated every six weeks. Three partial remissions of 56, 123 and 355 days duration were noted among 34 evaluable patients. Thrombocytopenia was prominent with a median platelet nadir of 47,000/μl. We conclude that Nimustine has minor antitumor-activity in heavily pretreated patients with small cell lung cancer. The definitive value of Nimustine in the treatment of small cell lung cancer, as well as its superiority over its parent compounds remains to be established.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; cellular immunity ; β2-microglobulin ; sIL-2r ; prognosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: The association of known prognostic factors with immune cell counts and β2-microglobulin and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2r) serum levels as markers of activation of the immune system was investigated in breastcancer. Methods: Two hundred thirty five operated stage I and II breast cancer patients to receive adjuvant treatment in IBSCG trials were assessed in a cross-sectional study immediately before the first treatment. Leukocytes, lymphocytes and lymphocyte subset counts, β2-microglobulin and sIL-2r serum levels were assessed as immunological parameters. Prognostic factors were tumor load, receptor status, patient characteristics, and contextual factors of the immune assessment (such as time of the day, time since surgery, type of surgery, concomitant medication, co-morbidity). Results: In an operated early stage breast cancer patient population, tumor load was not associated with immune cell counts, β2-microglobulin, or sIL-2r before adjuvant treatment. There was a pattern of association of prognostically favorable factors such as estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumor and older age with higher NK cell counts or with β2-microglobulin or sIL-2r. In addition, immune cell counts and the markers of activation of the immune system were affected by several contextual factors, such as diurnal variability, time since surgery, type of surgery, and the intake of concomitant medication. Conclusions: The association of NK cell counts and β2-microglobulin or sIL-2r serum levels with prognostically favorable factors such as ER positive tumor and older age supports the assumption that the immune system plays a role in the course of early breast cancer. The exact nature of this role requires furtherstudy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Key words: DNA methylation ; Facultative heterochromatin ; Gagea ; Endosperm nucleus (pentaploid)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Pentaploid endosperm nuclei in certain Gagea species exhibit large masses of sticky and dense chromatin, not observed in somatic nuclei. These heterochromatin masses most probably stem from the triploid chalasal polar nucleus of the embryo sac, thus representing an example of facultative heterochromatinisation in plants. In the present investigation, we studied the nuclei in Gagea lutea (L.) Ker-Gawl. endosperm tissue. The position of the heterochromatin in interphase nuclei was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the DNA methylation status of the euchromatin and heterochromatin was analysed by immunolabelling with an antibody raised against 5-methylcytosine (anti-5-mC). In young endosperms, heterochromatin was relatively dispersed, occupying some peripheral and inner parts of the nuclei. In a later endosperm development, the nuclei became smaller and more pycnotic, and the heterochromatin masses were placed predominantly near the nuclear periphery. The distribution of anti-5-mC labelling on the heterochromatic regions was unequal: some parts appeared hypermethylated while other parts were, like the euchromatin, not labelled. During mitosis, the labelling intensity of all the chromosomes was approximately the same, thus indicating that there are no cytologically detectable methylation differences among the individual sets of chromosomes. However, differences in the anti-5-mC signal intensity along individual chromosomes were observed, resulting in banding patterns with highly positive bands apparently representing constitutive heterochromatic regions. From these results it is obvious that facultative heterochromatinisation, in contrast to constitutive heterochromatinisation, need not be strictly accompanied by a prominent DNA hypermethylation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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