Key words:Broadband ultrasound attenuation – Quantitative ultrasound – Speed of sound
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment of bone is a strong predictor of hip fractures and is currently an FDA-approved tool to identify women at risk of osteoporosis. However, few studies have investigated the lifestyle and genetic correlates of QUS in women. This study investigated the cross-sectional associates of several lifestyle, demographic and genetic factors with calcaneal QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS)) in 393 women aged 45–53 years. Leisure-time and historical physical activity, dietary calcium and protein, body composition, vitamin D receptor genotypes, menopause status, other health behaviors, calcaneal QUS parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed at a single clinic visit. Lean mass, recent physical activity and African-American race were the strongest correlates of SOS whereas dietary protein, calcium and recent physical activity were the strongest correlates of BUA. These predictors explained 13% and 6% of the variance in SOS and BUA, respectively. Smoking, alcohol intake, education, hormone replacement therapy, calcium and vitamin D supplements, historical physical activity and vitamin D receptor genotypes were not significantly associated with BUA or SOS. Lean body mass and premenopausal status were the strongest correlates of lumbar BMD whereas lean body mass, physical activity, African-American race and body mass index were significantly related to femoral neck BMD. Physical activity remained predictive of SOS after controlling for lumbar BMD. The spectrum and magnitude of risk factors for SOS and BUA, including lean body mass, physical activity, race, protein and calcium intake, parallel previously observed predictors of BMD.
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