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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELL ; human ; LUNG ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; SUPPORT ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; RISK ; RISKS ; SITE ; ENZYMES ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; PATIENT ; DNA ; MARKER ; BIOLOGY ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; SEQUENCE ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; HEALTH ; DNA-REPAIR ; REPAIR ; COMPONENT ; MARKERS ; DAMAGE ; HUMAN GENOME ; REGION ; REGIONS ; DNA-DAMAGE ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; CANCER PATIENTS ; CYCLE CONTROL ; MULTICENTER ; DNA repair ; O-6-ALKYLGUANINE-DNA ALKYLTRANSFERASE ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; VARIANT ; CHECKPOINT ; biomarker ; INTERVAL ; ENZYME ; analysis ; DNA damage ; HAPLOTYPE ; USA ; odds ratio ; cancer research ; cell cycle checkpoints ; modeling ; cell cycle control ; block ; nonsmokers ; INTEGRITY
    Abstract: The DNA repair systems maintain the integrity of the human genome and cell cycle checkpoints are a critical component of the cellular response to DNA damage. We hypothesized that genetic variants in DNA repair and cell cycle control pathways will influence the predisposition to lung cancer, and studied 27 variants in 17 DNA repair enzymes and 10 variants in eight cell cycle control genes in 1,604 lung cancer patients and 2,053 controls. To improve the estimation of risks for specific variants, we applied a Bayesian approach in which we allowed the prior knowledge regarding the evolutionary biology and physicochemical properties of the variant to be incorporated into the hierarchical model. Based on the estimation from the hierarchical modeling, MGMT 143V or 178R, and CHEK2 157I had an odds ratio of lung cancer equal to 1.45 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.05-2.00], 1.18 (95% CI, 1.01-1.40), and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.14-2.17). The association of CHEK2 1571 seems to be overestimated in the conventional analysis. Nevertheless, this association seems to be robust in the hierarchical modeling. None of the pathways seem to have a prominent effect. In general, our study supports the notion that sequence variation may explain at least some of the variation of inherited susceptibility. In particular, further investigation of OGG1, MGMT, and CHEK2 focusing on the genetic regions where the present markers are located or the haplotype blocks tightly linked with these markers might be warranted
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18086781
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  • 2
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; carcinoma ; CELL ; LUNG ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; METABOLISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; AGE ; DNA-REPAIR ; smoking ; ADHESION ; CELL-ADHESION ; inflammation ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; VARIANT ; CANDIDATE GENES ; METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; INCREASED RISK ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; CHINESE POPULATION ; XUAN-WEI ; METHYLENE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; GENE POLYMORPHISMS ; Genetic ; CENTRAL-EUROPE ; SEQUENCE VARIANTS
    Abstract: Background. Analysis of candidate genes in individual studies has had only limited success in identifying particular gene variants that are conclusively associated with lung cancer risk. In the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), we conducted a coordinated genotyping study of 10 common variants selected because of their prior evidence of an association with lung cancer. These variants belonged to candidate genes from different cancer-related pathways including inflammation (IL1B), folate metabolism (MTHFR), regulatory function (AKAP9 and CAMKK1), cell adhesion (SEZL6) and apoptosis (FAS, FASL, TP53, TP53BP1 and BAT3). Methods. Genotype data from 15 ILCCO case-control studies were available for a total of 8431 lung cancer cases and 11 072 controls of European descent and Asian ethnic groups. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between each variant and lung cancer risk. Results. Only the association between a non-synonymous variant of TP53BP1 (rs560191) and lung cancer risk was significant (OR = 0.91, P = 0.002). This association was more striking for squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 0.86, P = 6 x 10(-4)). No heterogeneity by center, ethnicity, smoking status, age group or sex was observed. In order to confirm this association, we included results for this variant from a set of independent studies (9966 cases/11 722 controls) and we reported similar results. When combining all these studies together, we reported an overall OR = 0.93 (0.89-0.97) (P = 0.001). This association was significant only for squamous cell carcinoma [OR = 0.89 (0.85-0.95), P = 1 x 10(-4)]. Conclusion. This study suggests that rs560191 is associated to lung cancer risk and further highlights the value of consortia in replicating or refuting published genetic associations
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20106900
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  • 3
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; NECK-CANCER ; pooled analysis ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; ALCOHOL-DRINKING ; EPIDEMIOLOGY CONSORTIUM ; INTERNATIONAL HEAD ; SENSITIVITY PROTEIN MUS308 ; TOBACCO-RELATED CANCERS
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p 〈= 5 x 10(-7)). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1 x 10(-8)) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p = 2 x 10(-8)) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 x 10(-8); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 x 10(-9); and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21437268
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  • 4
    Keywords: PROTEINS ; SKIN ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; CERVICAL-CANCER ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPES ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; HAPLOTYPE MAP ; DISEASE ASSOCIATION ; EXTENDED HUMAN MHC
    Abstract: High-risk mucosal types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers, whereas cutaneous types (e.g. HPV8 and 77) are suspected to be involved in non-melanoma skin cancer. The antibody response to HPVs is a key determinant of protective immunity, but not all infected individuals seroconvert. Genetic variability of the host may have large impact on seroconversion. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified a susceptibility locus (rs41270488) for HPV8 seropositivity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. To further study this locus, we imputed alleles at classical leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci using HLA*IMP:02 with a reference panel from the HapMap Project and the 1958 Birth Cohort, and conducted an integrated analysis among 4811 central European subjects to assess the contribution of classical HLA alleles and gene copy number variation (CNV) at the hypervariable DRB locus within the MHC region to HPV seropositivity at both the individual HPV type level and the phylogenetic species level. Our study provides evidence that the association noted between rs41270488 and HPV8 seropositivity is driven by two independent variants, namely DQB1*0301 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36-1.68, P = 1.0 x 10(-14)] and DRB1*1101 (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.57-2.28, P = 1.5 x 10(-11)) within the HLA class II region. Additionally, we identified two correlated alleles DRB1*0701 (OR = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.41-1.98, P = 2.6 x 10(-9)) and DQA1*0201 (OR = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.38-1.93, P = 1.7 x 10(-8)), to be associated with HPV77 seropositivity. Comparable results were observed through imputation using SNP2HLA with another reference panel from the Type 1 diabetes Genetics Consortium. This study provides support for an important role of HLA class II alleles in antibody response to HPV infection.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25616963
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  • 5
    Keywords: COHORT ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; METABOLISM ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; SMOKERS ; SERUM ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; nonsmokers ; NICOTINE DEPENDENCE ; CIGARETTE CONSUMPTION ; SALIVA COTININE ; SMOKING BEHAVIORS
    Abstract: Backgrounds: Multiple polymorphisms affecting smoking behavior have been identified through genome-wide association studies. Circulating levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine is a marker of recent smoking exposure. Hence, genetic variants influencing smoking behavior are expected to be associated with cotinine levels. Methods: We conducted an analysis in a lung cancer case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We investigated the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously associated with smoking behavior on (i) circulating cotinine and (ii) lung cancer risk. A total of 894 cases and 1,805 controls were analyzed for cotinine and genotyped for 10 polymorphisms on 7p14, 8p11, 10q23, 15q25, and 19q13. Results: Two variants in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 on 15q25, rs16969968 and rs578776, were associated with cotinine (P = 0.001 and 0.03, respectively) in current smokers and with lung cancer risk (P 〈 0.001 and P 0.001, respectively). Two 19q13 variants, rs7937 and rs4105144, were associated with increased cotinine (P = 0.003 and P 〈 0.001, respectively) but decreased lung cancer risk (P = 0.01 for both, after adjusting for cotinine). Variants in 7p14, 8p11, and 10q23 were not associated with cotinine or lung cancer risk. Conclusions: 15q25 and 19q13 SNPs were associated with circulating cotinine. The directions of association for 15q25 variants with cotinine were in accordance with that expected of lung cancer risk, whereas SNPs on 19q13 displayed contrasting associations of cotinine and lung cancer that require further investigation. Impact: This study is the largest to date investigating the effects of polymorphisms affecting smoking behavior on lung cancer risk using circulating cotinine measures as proxies for recent smoking behavior.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21862624
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  • 6
    Keywords: INFECTION ; IMMUNE-RESPONSES ; CERVICAL-CANCER ; EPIDERMODYSPLASIA-VERRUCIFORMIS ; NONMELANOMA SKIN-CANCER ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPES ; UNIVERSITY-STUDENTS ; DISEASE ASSOCIATION ; HLA POLYMORPHISMS ; HUMAN MHC
    Abstract: High-risk alpha mucosal types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers, whereas beta cutaneous HPV types (e.g. HPV8) have been implicated in non-melanoma skin cancer. Although antibodies against the capsid protein L1 of HPV are considered as markers of cumulative exposure, not all infected persons seroconvert. To identify common genetic variants that influence HPV seroconversion, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study. Genome-wide genotyping of 316 015 single nucleotide polymorphisms was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 BeadChip in 4811 subjects from a central European case-control study of lung, head and neck and kidney cancer that had serology data available on 13 HPV types. Only one association met genome-wide significance criteria, namely that between HPV8 seropositivity and rs9357152 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-1.50 for the minor allele G; P = 1.2 x 10(-10)], a common genetic variant (minor allele frequency = 0.33) located within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II region at 6p21.32. This association was subsequently replicated in an independent set of 2344 subjects from a Latin American case-control study of head and neck cancer (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.18-1.56, P = 2.2 x 10(-5)), yielding P = 1.3 x 10(-14) in the combined analysis (P-heterogeneity = 0.87). No heterogeneity was noted by cancer status (controls/lung cancer cases/head and neck cancer cases/kidney cancer cases). This study provides a proof of principle that genetic variation plays a role in antibody reactivity to HPV infection.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21896673
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  • 7
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: A proportion of the genetic variants involved in susceptibility to Hodgkin lymphoma differ by the tumor's Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status, particularly within the MHC region. METHODS: We have conducted an SNP imputation study of the MHC region, considering tumor EBV status in 1,200 classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) cases and 5,726 control subjects of European origin. Notable findings were genotyped in an independent study population of 468 cHL cases and 551 controls. RESULTS: We identified and subsequently replicated a novel association between a common genetic variant rs6457715 and cHL. Although strongly associated with EBV-positive cHL [OR, 2.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.83-2.97; P = 7 x 10(-12)], there was little evidence for association between rs6457715 and the EBV-negative subgroup of cHL (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.92-1.21), indicating that this association was specific to the EBV-positive subgroup (Phet 〈 P = 10(-8)). Furthermore, the association was limited to EBV-positive cHL subgroups within mixed cell (MCHL) and nodular sclerosis subtypes (NSHL), suggesting that the association is independent of histologic subtype of cHL. CONCLUSIONS: rs6457715, located near the HLA-DPB1 gene, is associated with EBV-positive cHL and suggests this region as a novel susceptibility locus for cHL. IMPACT: This expands the number of genetic variants that are associated with cHL and provides additional evidence for a critical and specific role of EBV in the etiology of this disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(12); 1838-43. (c)2015 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26404960
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; DISEASE ; NEW-YORK ; GENE ; GENES ; RNA ; MARKER ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; genetics ; etiology ; MARKERS ; REGION ; FRANCE ; REPLICATION ; SERIES ; heredity ; RE ; LOCUS ; USA ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association study ; human telomerase ; GENOME-WIDE
    Abstract: We carried out a genome-wide association study of lung cancer (3,259 cases and 4,159 controls), followed by replication in 2,899 cases and 5,573 controls. Two uncorrelated disease markers at 5p15.33, rs402710 and rs2736100 were detected by the genome-wide data (P - 2 x 10(-7) and P = 4 x 10(-6)) and replicated by the independent study series (P = 7 x 10(-5) and P = 0.016). The susceptibility region contains two genes, TERT and CLPTM1L, suggesting that one or both may have a role in lung cancer etiology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18978790
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; MODEL ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENES ; REED-STERNBERG CELLS ; CLASS-I ; ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM ; PSORIASIS ; INFECTIOUS-MONONUCLEOSIS ; susceptibility loci ; DISEASE HD
    Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that risk factors for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) differ by tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. This potential etiological heterogeneity is not recognized in current disease classification. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 1200 cHL patients and 6417 control subjects, with validation in an independent replication series, to identify common genetic variants associated with total cHL and subtypes defined by tumor EBV status. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) assuming a log-additive genetic model for the variants. All statistical tests were two-sided. Two novel loci associated with total cHL irrespective of EBV status were identified in the major histocompatibility complex region; one resides adjacent to MICB (rs2248462: OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.69, P = 1.3 x 10(-13)) and the other at HLA-DRA (rs2395185: OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.62, P = 8.3 x 10(-25)) with both results confirmed in an independent replication series. Consistent with previous reports, associations were found between EBV-positive cHL and genetic variants within the class I region (rs2734986, HLA-A: OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 2.00 to 3.00, P = 1.2 x 10(-15); rs6904029, HCG9: OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.59, P = 5.5 x 10(-10)) and between EBV-negative cHL and rs6903608 within the class II region (rs6903608, HLA-DRA: OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.84 to 2.35, P = 6.1 x 10(-31)). The association between rs6903608 and EBV-negative cHL was confined to the nodular sclerosis histological subtype. Evidence for an association between EBV-negative cHL and rs20541 (5q31, IL13: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.32 to 1.76, P = 5.4 x 10(-9)), a variant previously linked to psoriasis and asthma, was observed; however, the evidence for replication was less clear. Notably, one additional psoriasis-associated variant, rs27524 (5q15, ERAP1), showed evidence of an association with cHL in the genome-wide association study (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.33, P = 1.5 x 10(-4)) and replication series (P = .03). Overall, these results provide strong evidence that EBV status is an etiologically important classification of cHL and also suggest that some components of the pathological process are common to both EBV-positive and EBV-negative patients
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22286212
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; microarray ; PATIENT ; DNA ; prognosis ; mechanisms ; treatment ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; STAGE ; ADENOMAS ; NUMBER ; AGE ; DNA-REPAIR ; REPAIR ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; chemotherapy ; case-control studies ; INDIVIDUALS ; DNA repair ; EXCISION-REPAIR ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; CANDIDATE GENES ; XPD ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; single-nucleotide ; PRIMER EXTENSION ; XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM ; PREDICTS ; OGG1 ; XRCC3 POLYMORPHISMS
    Abstract: Objectives: We have undertaken a comprehensive study of common polymorphisms in genes of DNA repair, exploring both the risk of developing colorectal cancer and the prognosis of patients. Methods: Subjects from a case-control study (377 cases and 329 controls) designed to assess gene-environment interactions were genotyped by use of an oligonucleotide microarray and the arrayed primer extension technique. Twenty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in 15 DNA repair genes were included. The candidate genes belong to different DNA repair pathways: base excision repair (OGG1, LIG3, APEX, POLB, XRCC1, PCNA, and MUTYH), nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4, and ERCC5), double-strand breaks repair (XRCC2, XRCC3, and XRCC9), and reversion repair (MGMT) genes. Results: Polymorphism OGG1 S326C was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer [odds ratio (OR), 2.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.1-5.0], the risk being higher in younger individuals. A haplotype of ERCC1 was associated with increased risk (OR, 2.3; 95% Cl, 1.0-5.3). POLB P242R was also associated with decreased risk (OR, 0.23; 95% Cl, 0.05-0.99), although the number of variant allele carriers was low. In the univariate analysis, adjusted for age, sex, and Dukes' stage, three polymorphisms were significantly associated with better prognosis. XRCC1 R399Q [hazard ratio (HR), 0.38; 95% Cl, 0.17-0.85], XRCC3 T141M (HR, 0.66; 95% Cl, 0.45-0.97), and MGMT L84F (HR, 0.14; 95% Cl, 0.02-0.99). ERCC1 19007T〉C was associated with worse prognosis (HR, 1.51; 95% Cl, 1.01-2.27). In a multivariate analysis, only XRCC1 R399Q and ERCC1 19007T〉C remained significant. These associations were stronger among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions: Although the overall effect of DNA repair genes in colorectal cancer etiology seems limited, their influence in the response to chemotherapy and prognosis may be more relevant. This knowledge may help to clarify the utility of specific adjuvant treatments according to the individual genetic background
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16609022
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