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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Human ; Marijuana ; THC ; Subjective effects ; Reinforcing effects ; Self-administration ; Route of administration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The reinforcing and subjective effects of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and smoked marijuana were studied in two groups of regular marijuana users. One group (N=10) was tested with smoked marijuana and the other (N=11) with oral THC. Reinforcing effects were measured with a discrete-trial choice procedure which allowed subjects to choose between the self-administration of active drug or placebo on two independent occasions. Subjective effects and heart rate were measured before and after drug administration. Smoked active marijuana was chosen over placebo on both choice occasions by all subjects. Similarly, oral THC was chosen over placebo on both occasions by all but one subject. Both active drug treatments produced qualitatively and quantitatively similar subjective effects, and both significantly increased heart rate, although the time course of effects differed substantially between the two treatments. The results demonstrate that both smoked marijuana and oral THC can serve as positive reinforcers in human subjects under laboratory conditions. The experimental paradigm used here should prove useful for identifying factors that influence the self-administration of marijuana and other cannabinoids by humans.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 103 (1991), S. 223-226 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Marijuana ; Smoking ; Smoking topography ; Human ; Carbon monoxide ; Subjective effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present study examined the effects of systematic manipulation of breathhold duration (0 and 20 s) on the physiological and subjective response to active (M; 2.3% delta-9-THC) and placebo (P; 0.0% delta-9-THC) marijuana in a group of ten regular marijuana smokers. During the eight-session experiment, subjects were exposed twice to each of four experimental conditions (P0, P20, M0, M20), scheduled according to a randomized block design. A controlled smoking procedure was used in which the number of puffs and puff volume were held constant. Expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) levels were used to monitor smoke intake. Breathhold duration affected CO absorption; significantly more CO was absorbed from both P and M smoke after 20 s of breathholding (mean CO boost=6.9 ppm) than after no breathholding (mean=4.4 ppm). Heart rate was minimally affected by the breathhold manipulation. Effects of marijuana on mood were not consistently affected by breathhold duration. The results confirm previous findings that prolonged breathholding does not substantially enhance the effects of inhaled marijuana smoke.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Drug discrimination ; Human ; d-Amphetamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An experimental paradigm for studying the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs in human subjects is presented. The paradigm was tested by training subjects to discriminate 10 mg d-amphetamine from placebo. Subjects who successfully learned the discrimination were then tested with two lower doses of d-amphetamine and with 10 mg diazepam. The discriminative stimulus properties of d-amphetamine were dose-dependent, and in two of five subjects the d-amphetamine stimulus generalized to diazepam. The simplicity and versatility of the paradigm give it the potential for use in a wide variety of experimental and clinical situations.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Drug discrimination ; Humans ; Stimulus effects ; Subjective effects ; Mood ; Marijuana ; Cannabinoids ; Carbon monoxide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of smoked marijuana were studied by training marijuana smokers to discriminate between the effects of marijuana containing 2.7% △9-THC (M) and marijuana containing 0.0% △9-THC (P). In addition to measures of discrimination responding, subjective effects were assessed with standardized mood questionnaires. The post-smoking increase in expired air carbon monoxide (CO) level was used as an index of smoke inhalation. Relative to P cigarettes, M cigarettes increased heart rate and produced changes on eight mood scales. M cigarettes were rated as harsher and more potent than P cigarettes, and produced lower levels of CO than P cigarettes. The P-M discrimination was readily acquired by most subjects. The DS effects of marijuana showed a rapid onset, appearing within 90 s from the beginning of smoking. The DS effects were dose dependent, with 0.9% △9-THC marijuana producing primarily placebo-appropriate discrimination responding, and 1.4% △9-THC marijuana producing 100% drug-appropriate responding. This experimental paradigm could be used to determine whether the DS effects of smoked marijuana would generalize to those of other psychoactive drugs.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Drug discrimination ; Humans ; d-Amphetamine ; Subjective effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Seventeen normal, healthy adults were trained to discriminate between orally administered d-amphetamine (AMP; 10 mg) and placebo. Standardized subjective effects questionnaires were used to examine the relationship between the subjective and discriminative stimulus effects of AMP. Seven of the subjects were able to learn the discrimination reliably. These seven “discriminators” did not differ from the ten “nondiscriminators” in their subjective ratings of mood in the absence of drug. Discriminators were generally more sensitive than nondiscriminators to the subjective effects of AMP, although this difference in sensitivity reached statistical significance only for ratings of “hungry.” Stimulus substituion was tested in the discriminators with other doses of AMP (2.5 and 5 mg) and with 10 mg diazepam. The discriminative stimulus properties of AMP were dose-dependent, with 5 mg being the threshold dose. In five of the seven subjects the discriminative stimulus properties of diazepam did not substitute for those of AMP. The results demonstrate that the experimental paradigm can be used successfully to study the discriminative stimulus properties of drugs directly in humans.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Drug discrimination ; Humans ; d-Amphetamine ; Subjective effects ; Fenfluramine ; Phenmetrazine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The discriminative stimulus (DS) and subjective effects of d-amphetamine (AMP), phenmetrazine (PMT) and fenfluramine (FFL) were studied in a group of normal healthy adults. Subjects (N=27) were trained to discriminate between placebo and 10 mg AMP (PO). Fourteen of the subjects (discriminators) reliably learned the discrimination, whereas the other 13 did not. Nearly all discriminators labelled AMP as a stimulant, and AMP, relative to placebo, increased ratings of drug liking and general activity level, and produced typical stimulant-like subjective effects, as measured by the Profile of Mood States, the Addiction Research Center Inventory, and a series of visual analog scales. The discrimination accuracy of discriminators increased as a function of hour after drug ingestion, as did analog ratings of how certain subjects were that their discrimination responses were correct. Discriminators were tested with doses of PMT (25 and 50 mg) and FFL (20 and 40 mg) to determine whether the DS properties of these drugs would substitute for those of AMP. Both doses of PMT consistently substituted for AMP, and PMT produced subjective effects very similar to those of AMP. Conversely, neither dose of FFL consistently substituted for AMP, and FFL produced essentially no subjective effects. These findings are consistent with results from discrimination studies with other species, and provide further evidence of the validity of this procedure for studying the DS properties of drugs in humans.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Humans ; Drug abuse ; Subjective effects ; Mood ; Discriminative stimulus ; Drug discrimination ; Amphetamine ; Caffeine ; Benzphetamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The discriminative stimulus (DS) and subjective effects of caffeine (100 and 300 mg, PO) and benzphetamine (12.5 and 50 mg, PO) were studied in 18 normal human volunteers trained to discriminate between d-amphetamine (10 mg) and placebo. d-Amphetamine increased ratings of drug liking and activity level and produced a profile of subjective effects characteristic of amphetamine and related psychomotor stimulants. The DS effects of d-amphetamine generalized only partially to caffeine and benzphetamine; mean percent d-amphetamine-appropriate responding was 42 and 58 after 100 and 300 mg caffeine, respectively, and 17 and 56 after 12.5 and 50 mg benzphetamine, respectively. Neither dose of caffeine affected ratings of drug liking or activity level, but 300 mg caffeine did produce a profile of subjective effects that partially overlapped with that produced by d-amphetamine. Benzphetamine 50 mg, but not 12.5 mg, increased ratings of drug liking and activity level and produced a profile of subjective effects qualitatively similar to, but weaker than, that produced by d-amphetamine. For both caffeine and benzphetamine, a close relationship was observed between their subjective effects and their ability to substitute for the DS effects of d-amphetamine. These results correspond well with findings obtained from similar studies conducted with laboratory animals, providing further support for the reliability and validity of human drug discrimination paradigms.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Humans ; Drug abuse ; Self-administration ; Subjective effects ; Stimulants ; Anorectics ; Dependence potential ; Phenylpropanolamine ; Amphetamine ; Mood
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The reinforcing and subjective effects of phenylpropanolamine (PPA, 25 and 75 mg, PO) were compared with those of d-amphetamine (AMP, 5 mg) in a group of normal, healthy adults (eight males, nine females) with no history of drug abuse. A discrete-trial choice procedure was used in which subjects first sampled placebo and a dose of one of the drugs. Subjects were then allowed to choose between self-administration of drug or placebo on three separate occasions. The relative frequency with which active drug was chosen over placebo was used as the primary index of the drug's reinforcing efficacy. Subjective effects were measured with the Profile of Mood States, a short version of the Addiction Research Center Inventory and a series of visual analog scales. Ratings of drug liking, drug labelling, general activity level and strength of drug preference were also obtained. As expected, AMP was chosen significantly more often than expected by chance (69% of occasions). AMP also increased ratings of drug liking, preference strength, and activity level, and produced a profile of subjective effects consistent with its well-established stimulant and euphorigenic properties. The low dose of PPA was without effect on most measures. PPA 75 mg was chosen significantly less often than expected by chance (39% of occasions). This dose of PPA was most frequently labelled as a stimulant, and produced significant increases on ratings of Anxiety and “stimulated,” and decreases on ratings of “sedated” and “hungry.” Unlike AMP, PPA did not affect ratings of drug liking or mood scales reflecting euphoria. In sum, these results indicate that PPA does not possess AMP-like dependence potential.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Human ; Marijuana ; Alcohol ; Drug interaction ; Residual effects ; Psychomotor effects ; Cognitive effects ; Subjective effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The duration of behavioral impairment after marijuana smoking remains a matter of some debate. Alcohol and marijuana are frequently used together, but there has been little study of the effects of this drug combination on mood and behavior the day after use. The present study was designed to address these issues. Fourteen male and female subjects were each studied under four conditions: alcohol alone, marijuana alone, alcohol and marijuana in combination, and no active treatment. Mood and performance assessments were made during acute intoxication and twice the following day (morning and mid-afternoon). Acutely, each drug alone produced moderate levels of subjective intoxication and some degree of behavioral impairment. The drug combination produced the greatest level of impairment on most tasks and “strong” overall subjective ratings. There were few significant interactions between the two drugs, indicating that their effects tended to be additive. Only weak evidence was obtained for subjective or behavioral effects the day after active drug treatments, although consistent time-of-day effects (morning versus afternoon) were observed on several subjective and behavioral measures. In sum, this study provided little evidence that moderate doses of alcohol and marijuana, consumed either alone or in combination, produce behavioral or subjective impairment the following day.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 113 (1994), S. 381-387 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Ephedrine ; Abuse potential ; Mood ; Humans ; Subjective effects ; Self-administration ; Individual differences ; Gender
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract There has been little study of the abuse liability of ephedrine, a naturally occurring drug used in medicine for thousands of years and currently sold as a “legal” stimulant. The present study measured the reinforcing and subjective effects of ephedrine in a group of 27 adults (18 females and 9 males) with no history of drug dependence. A discrete-trial choice procedure was used to assess the reinforcing effects of a single oral dose of ephedrine selected to produce a moderate subjective response in each subject (range: 37.5-75 mg). A number of variables (gender, current and past drug use, personality, and baseline mood and arousal) were examined in an attempt to identify sources of variability in response to ephedrine. Of the 27 subjects, 5 chose ephedrine on either 2 or 3 out of a possible 3 occasions; overall, ephedrine was chosen on 17% of occasions. In the group as a whole, ephedrine had no effect on ratings of drug liking, but did increase ratings of “high” and scores on the MBG (“euphoria”) scale of the Addiction Research Center Inventory. Ephedrine also increased scores on a number of mood scales reflecting CNS stimulation and anxiety. Ephedrine choice was positively associated with current use of marijuana and lower levels of baseline anxiety and hunger, as well as with lower scores on two scales measuring dimensions of the personality trait of harm avoidance. Males and females differed in their response to ephedrine — males chose ephedrine more frequently than females and showed a more positive mood response to the drug. When compared to the results of a prior study of the same design withd-amphetamine, these results demonstrate that ephedrine produces a different profile of subjective effects and is a less efficacious reinforcer than amphetamine, suggesting that ephedrine has a lower liability for abuse.
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