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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key wordsCCN ; RFLP ; Hordeum vulgare ; Heterodera avenae ; Genetic mapping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae Woll., is an economically damaging pest of barley in many of the world’s cereal-growing areas. The development of CCN-resistant cultivars may be accelerated through the use of molecular markers. A number of resistance genes against the pest are well known; one of them, the single dominant Ha 2 resistance gene, has been shown to be effective against the Australian pathotype and maps to chromosome 2 of barley. Segregation analysis identified two restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers flanking the resistance gene in two doubled-haploid populations of barley. AWBMA 21 and MWG 694 mapped 4.1 and 6.1 cM respectively from the Ha 2 locus in the Chebec×Harrington cross and 4.0 and 9.2 cM respectively in the Clipper×Sahara cross. Analysis of a further seven sources of CCN resistance in the form of near-isogenic lines (NILs) indicates that all available sources of resistance to the Australian pathotype of CCN in barley represent the Ha 2 locus.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Wheat ; Flour colour ; QTL mapping ; RFLP ; AFLP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  An RFLP map constructed using 150 single seed descent (SSD) lines from a cross between two hexaploid wheat varieties (‘Schomburgk’בYarralinka’) was used to identify loci controlling flour colour. Flour colour data were obtained from field trials conducted over two seasons at different sites. The estimated heritability of this trait was calculated as 0.67. Two regions identified in the preliminary analysis on chromosomes 3A and 7A, accounted for 13% and 60% of the genetic variation respectively. A detailed analysis of the major locus on 7A was conducted through fine mapping of AFLP markers identified using bulked segregant analysis (BSA). Seven additional markers were identified by the BSA and mapped to the region of the 7A locus. The applicability of these markers to identify wheat lines with enhanced flour colour is discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Hordeum ; Grain ; Isozymes ; Ribosomal DNA ; Genetic adaptation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Grain isozyme and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variability was examined in Hordeum spontaneum populations sampled from 27 geographical sites in Israel. Considerable phenotypic variability was observed with variants of ADH1, EST3, EST10, BMY1 and WSP detected, which are not available in the H. vulgare gene pool. Seven new rDNA phenotypes were detected in the H. spontaneum populations. Shannon's index of diversity was used to partition the total phenotypic variation into between and within population components. Most of the variation occurred between H. spontaneum populations. The distribution of both grain isozyme and rDNA phenotypes was non-random and correlated with a range of ecogeographical factors. In particular, the G phenotype of BMY1 was restricted to the Negev Desert and Dead Sea regions of Israel. Over 78% of the variation in the frequency of this particular phenotype could be explained by the number of rainy days per year and mean temperature in January. This suggests that variation at this locus or at loci linked to it may be of adaptive significance and of value in the introgression of genes controlling abiotic stress tolerance from H. spontaneum into the H. vulgare gene pool.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Coffee ; Diversity ; RAPDs ; Gene introgression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) markers generated by arbitary decamers have been successfully employed to detect genetic polymorphisms between coffee species and between Coffea arabica genotypes. The RAPD profiles were used to construct dendrograms and these were consistent with the known history and evolution of Coffea arabica. Material originating from Ethiopia and the arabica sub-groups — C. arabica var. typica and C. arabica var. bourbon — were clearly distinguished. RAPD analysis therefore reflects morphological differences between the sub-groups and the geographical origin of the coffee material. Species-specific amplification products were also identified, but, more importantly, amplification products specific to C. canephora were identified in two C. arabica genotypes, Rume Sudan and Catimor 5175. This diagnostic product is therefore indicative of interspecific gene flow in coffee and has biological implications for selective introgressive hybridisation in coffee. Our study demonstrates the power of the polymerase chain reaction technology for the generation of genetic markers for long-lived perennial tree and bush crops.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Boron toxicity ; Boron tolerance ; Mapping ; Wheat ; Marker-assisted selection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Boron is an essential plant micro-nutrient which can be phytotoxic to plants if present in soils in high concentration. Boron toxicity has been recognised as an important problem limiting production in the low rainfall areas of southern Australia, West Asia and North Africa. Genetic variation for boron toxicity tolerance in wheat has been well-characterised. The efficiency of breeding for boron toxicity tolerance could be greatly enhanced by the development of molecular markers associated with QTLs for tolerance in wheat. A population of 161 doubled haploids from a cross between the tolerant cultivar Halberd and the moderately sensitive cultivar Cranbrook was used to identify chromosomal regions involved in boron tolerance. A combined RFLP and AFLP linkage map of the Cranbrook x Halberd population was used to identify chromosomal regions involved in the boron tolerance traits measured. Regions on chromosome 7B and 7D were associated with leaf symptom expression. The region on chromosome 7B was also associated with the control of boron uptake and with a reduction in the effect of boron toxicity on root-growth suppression. RFLP markers at the chromosome 7B and 7D loci were shown to be effective in selecting for improved boron tolerance in an alternative genetic background. Halberd alleles at the chromosome 7B locus were associated with the concentration of boron in whole shoots and grain. The concentration of boron in whole shoots and in grain were both related to grain yield in a field trial conducted on soil containing toxic levels of boron. Implications relating to marker-assisted selection for boron toxicity tolerance in wheat are discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: RAPDs ; DHs ; Bulked segregant analysis ; QTLs ; Barley
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Doubled haploid (DH) populations of barley have been used in combination with PCR-based polymorphic-assay procedures to identify molecular markers linked to genes controlling the milling energy requirement of the grain. Milling energy (ME) is a quantitative trait and locating individual quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved the construction of bulks by combining DNA from DH families representing the extreme members of the distribution for ME. In addition, the individuals had alternative alleles at theRrn2 locus that has previously been shown to be linked to an ME QTL. The DNA bulks were screened with Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and polymorphic amplification products tested for linkage to genes influencing the expression of ME in a DH population. Several markers were identified which are linked to a QTL controlling ME and the recombination fraction determined by maximum likelihood procedures. The results indicate that DHs in combination with RAPDs and bulked segregant analysis provide an efficient method for locating QTLs in barely. Furthermore, this approach is applicable to mapping other QTLs in a range of organisms from which DH or recombinant inbred lines can be extracted.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: RAPDs ; Mahoganies ; Genetic variation ; Conservation ; Genetic Improvement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Despite the economic importance of mahoganies (Meliaceae) little is known of the pattern of genetic variation within this family of tropical trees. We describe the application of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based polymorphic DNA assay procedure random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) to assess the extent of genetic variation between eight mahogany species from four genera. Pronounced genetic differentiation was found between the species and genera. There was a clear separation of Cedrela odorata from the other species, with 95% of the variable amplification products differing, whereas Lovoa trichilioides, Khaya spp. and Swietenia spp. were more closely grouped. These results are consistent with the current taxonomic viewpoint. A number of markers were found to be diagnostic for particular species, which could be of value in determining the status of putative hybrids. The application of RAPDs to the study of genetic variation in mahoganies is discussed in the context of developing genetic conservation and improvement strategies for these species.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley ; QTLs ; Linkage ; Yield ; Markers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been revealed for characters in a segregating population from a spring barley cross between genotypes adapted to North-West Europe. Transgressive segregation was found for all the characters, which was confirmed by the regular detection of positive and negative QTLs from both parents. A QTL for all the agronomic, yield and grain characters measured except thousand grain weight was found in the region of the denso dwarfing gene locus. There were considerable differences between the location of QTLs found in the present study and those found in previous studies of North American germ plasm, revealing the diversity between the two gene pools. Thirty-one QTLs were detected in more than one environment for the 13 characters studied, although many more were detected in just one environment. Whilst biometrical analyses suggested the presence of epistasis in the genetic control of some characters, there was little evidence of interactions between the QTLs apart from those associated with yield. QTLs of large effect sometimes masked the presence of QTLs of smaller effect.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words RFLP analysis ; Triticum aestivum ; Genetic diversity ; Genetic similarity estimates ; Cluster analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been used to characterise the genetic diversity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germplasm. One hundred and twenty-four accessions comprising all major Australian wheat varieties and lines important for breeding purposes were assayed for RFLPs with clones of known genetic location and selected to give uniform genome coverage. The objectives of this study were to determine RFLP-based genetic similarity between accessions and to derive associations between agronomically significant traits and RFLP phenotypes. Ninety-eight probes screened against genomic DNA digested with five restriction endonucleases detected a total of 1968 polymorphic fragments. Genetic similarity (GS) calculated from the RFLP data ranged from 0.004 to 0.409 between accessions, with a mean of 0.18. Cluster analysis based on GS estimates produced four groupings that were generally consistent with available pedigree information. Comparisons of the RFLP phenotypes of accessions containing disease resistance genes present on introgressed alien segments enabled the identification of specific alleles characteristic of these regions. Associations were derived for a range of stem-rust, leaf-rust and yellow-rust resistance genes. These results suggest that RFLP analysis can be used for the characterisation and grouping of elite breeding material of wheat and RFLP profiling can identify chromosome segments associated with agronomic traits.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Boron toxicity ; Boron tolerance ; RFLP mapping ; Barley
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Boron toxicity has been recognised as an important problem limiting production in the low-rainfall regions of southern Australia, West Asia and North Africa. Genetic variation for boron toxicity tolerance in barley has been characterised but the mode of inheritance and the location of genes controlling tolerance were not previously known. A population of 150 doubled-haploid lines from a cross between a boron toxicity tolerant Algerian landrace, Sahara 3771, and the intolerant Australian cultivar Clipper was screened in four tolerance assays. An RFLP linkage map of the Clipper×Sahara population was used to identify chromosomal regions associated with boron tolerance in barley. Interval regression-mapping allowed the detection of four chromosomal regions involved in the boron tolerance traits measured. A region on chromosome 2H was associated with leaf-symptom expression, a region on chromosome 3H was associated with a reduction of the affect of boron toxicity on root growth suppression, a region on chromosome 6H was associated with reduced boron uptake, and a region on chromosome 4H was also associated with the control of boron uptake as well as being associated with root-length response, dry matter production and symptom expression. The benefits and potential of marker-assisted selection for boron toxicity tolerance are discussed.
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