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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The basis for the difference between strains 168 (d-tyrosine-sensitive) and 23 (d-tyrosine-resistant) of Bacillus subtilis at the molecular level is that of transport of d-tyrosine into the cell. Strain 23 does not incorporate significant amounts of d-tyrosine into whole cells. A mutant derivative was isolated from strain 23 which had an altered transport system permitting d-tyrosine uptake, a change which also led to inhibition of growth by d-tyrosine. Strain 168 is extremely sensitive to growth inhibition caused by low concentrations of the d-isomer of tyrosine. A mutant derivative of strain 168 selected for its d-tyrosine resistant phenotype had an altered transport system which no longer recognized the d-isomer of tyrosine. These mutants define at least one element of the tyrosine transport system in B. subtilis and provide a convenient phenotype for the eventual location of the chromosal map position.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The ID50 values for azithromycin and clarithromycin inhibition of translation and of 50S assembly in Staphylococcus aureus cells have been measured. For clarithromycin, 50% inhibition of growth occurred at 0.075 μg/ml, and the effects on translation and 50S formation were equivalent at 0.15 μg/ml. The inhibition of these processes by azithromycin was less effective, with an ID50 of 2.5 μg/ml for growth and 5 μg/ml for inhibition of translation and 50S formation. The additive effects of each of these drugs on translation and 50S formation account quantitatively for their observed influence on cellular growth rates. In macrolide-treated cells, there was also a direct relationship between the loss of ribosomal RNA from the 50S subunit and its accumulation as oligoribonucleotides. These results are compared with the previously described effects of erythromycin on these same processes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A new genetic nomenclature for the macromolecules involved in bacterial protein synthesis is proposed and explained. Genes for ribosomal proteins are designated rsp, rpl and rpm while genes for ribosomal RNAs are rrs and rrl. Protein synthesis factors and ribosome assembly and modification activities are also consistantly named.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current microbiology 21 (1990), S. 261-265 
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The binding of the aminocyclitol antibiotic spectinomycin to 70S ribosomes and to 30S subunits fromEscherichia coli has been investigated. The association was influenced by the presence of messenger RNA. The Kd for [3H]-4 OH-spectinomycin binding to 70S ribosomes was 2×10−7 M without mRNA (polyinosinic acid), and 1×10−6 M with polyinosinic acid. Dissociation of the antibiotic from the ribosomes was significantly affected by the presence of a bound messenger RNA, which reduced the rate of dissociation by a factor of 5.7. The presence of mRNA did not influence the association of spectinomycin with the 30S subunit. The dissociation rate from the small subunit was comparable to the rate of dissociation from the 70S ribosome and was not affected by the presence of mRNA.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics have been examined for their effects on ribosome assembly in growing Escherichia coli cells. Formation of the 50S ribosomal subunit was specifically inhibited by erythromycin and azithromycin. Other related compounds tested, including oleandomycin, clarithromycin, spiramycin, and virginiamycin M1, did not influence assembly. Erythromycin did not promote the breakdown of ribosomes formed in the absence of the drug. Two erythromycin-resistant mutants with alterations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 were also examined for an effect on assembly. Subunit assembly was affected in the mutant containing the L22 alteration only at erythromycin concentrations fourfold greater than those needed to stop assembly in wild-type cells. Ribosomal subunit assembly was only marginally affected at the highest drug concentration tested in the cells that contained the altered L4 protein. These novel results indicate that erythromycin has two effects on translation, preventing elongation of the polypeptide chain and also inhibiting the formation of the large ribosomal subunit.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Nine structurally similar macrolide antibiotics were tested at a concentration of 0.5 μg/ml for their relative inhibitory effects on ribosome functions in Staphylococcus aureus cells. Eight of the compounds examined inhibited protein synthesis at this concentration. Seven of the nine compounds were also effective in blocking formation of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Roxithromycin and 14-hydroxy clarithromycin inhibited protein synthesis to a greater extent than they affected 50S subunit formation. Conversely, the compound 11,12-carbonate-3 deoxy-clarithromycin affected 50S assembly more than translation. Only clarithromycin had any effect on 30S ribosomal subunit assembly. The decline in growth rate and cell number was proportional to the effect on ribosome formation or function by each compound. These inhibitory activities can be related to structural differences between these macrolide antibiotics.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Eleven structurally similar ketolide antibiotics were tested at a concentration of 1 μg/ml for their relative inhibitory effects on growth and ribosome activities in Staphylococcus aureus cells. Ten of the compounds examined had an inhibitory effect on protein synthesis at this concentration and eight of the 11 compounds were also effective inhibitors of the formation of the 50S ribosomal subunit. All of the drugs tested inhibited protein synthesis to a greater extent than they affected 50S subunit formation. The decline in growth rate and cell number was proportional to the effect on ribosome formation and function. The growth of an ermC erythromycin-resistant strain of S. aureus was also significantly inhibited by nine ketolide compounds, suggesting that they were not inducers of methylase gene expression. These inhibitory activities can be related to structural differences between these ketolide antibiotics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The translational functions of the bacterial ribosome are the target for a large number of antimicrobial agents. The 14- and 16-membered macrolides, the lincosamides, and the streptogramin B type antibiotics are thought to share certain inhibitory properties, based on both biochemical and genetic studies. We have shown previously that the 14-membered macrolides, like erythromycin, have an equivalent inhibitory effect on translation and the formation of the 50S ribosomal subunit in growing bacterial cells. To extend this work, we have now tested the 16-membered macrolides spiramycin and tylosin, the lincosamides lincomycin and clindamycin, and 3 streptogramin B compounds pristinamycin IA, virginiamycin S, and CP37277. Each of these was a specific inhibitor of 50S subunit formation, in addition to having an inhibitory effect on translation. By contrast, two streptogramin A compounds, virginiamycin M1 and CP36926, as well as chloramphenicol, were effective inhibitors of translation without showing a specific effect on the assembly of the large ribosomal subunit. A combination of an A and B type streptogramin (virginiamycin M1 and pristinamycin IA) demonstrated a synergistic inhibition of protein synthesis without exhibiting a specific inhibition of 50S subunit formation. These results extend our observations on 50S assembly inhibition to the entire class of MLSB antibiotics and reinforce other suggestions concerning their common ribosome-binding site and inhibitory functions.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Three pairs of related macrolide antibiotics, differing at the 11,12 position of the macrolactone ring, were compared for effects on growth rate, cell viability, protein synthesis, and 50S ribosomal subunit formation in Staphylococcus aureus cells. For each parameter measured, the 11,12 carbonate–derivatized compound was more inhibitory compared with the corresponding 11,12-hydroxy antibiotic. Substitution at the 3-position of the ring was also important in the relative inhibition observed. The degree of inhibition found in two different growth media was proportional to the generation time of the cells. Inhibition of both protein synthesis and 50S subunit formation by each drug correlated well with the inhibition of cell viability. The results indicate that closure of the 11,12-hydroxyl groups in macrolide antibiotics with a carbonate substitution generates a more effective antimicrobial agent.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The rates of total protein synthesis, polyribosome formation and 70S ribosome accumulation were measured following a nutritional shift-up ofEscherichia coli K-12. Changes in ribosome content and distribution during the shift-up were measured by examining the total cellular content of free and polysome-associated ribosomes using a sensitive double isotope labeling method. The kinetics of ribosomal subunit formation and the biosynthesis of subunit protein and RNA species were also defined. The results indicated that a pre-shift population of ribosomal subunits was utilized for the immediate post shift increase in both total and ribosomal-specific protein synthesis. An assembly time for new subunits of about 3 min was observed. The formation of certain ribosomal proteins during the shift suggested that new subunit assembly was limited by the rate of synthesis of particular ribosomal proteins during this growth transition.
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