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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Callosotomy ; Corpus callosum ; Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  From September 1989 to August 1996, we performed anterior corpus callosotomy in 83 patients. Unfortunately, 9 patients were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 74 patients, 59 had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (evolved from infantile spasms in 22), 9 had complex partial seizures with or without secondary generalized seizures, 1 had multifocal independent epileptogenic foci (MISF) syndrome, 3 had hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE), and 2 had infantile spasms. All cases were followed up for at least 2 years after surgery. The highest rate of significant improvement (more than 50% reduction in seizure frequency) was noted in the patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, 82.1% of whom experienced significant improvement, followed by those with generalized tonic seizures (76.7%), atonic seizures (72.7%), myoclonic seizures (64.9%), atypical absences (58.6%), and complex partial seizure with or without secondary generalization (61.5%). Complete freedom from seizures was noted in 14 cases (18.9%). One patient had the anterior half of his right palm amputated following radial artery thrombosis complicated by insertion of an arterial line during anesthesia. Otherwise, there were no major postoperative complications except for brief mutism and multifocal jerks in some patients during the 1st postoperative week. Thus, we conclude that corpus callosotomy is a safe alternative treatment for all kinds of medically intractable seizures, especially generalized epilepsy.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Experimental Cell Research 180 (1989), S. 161-170 
    ISSN: 0014-4827
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0178-515X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Removal rates of a toxic pollutant-hydrogen sulfide were investigated using several light sources in photosynthetic desulfurization. An incandescent bulb has a broad spectrum starting from about 400 nm but emits most of its light energy beyond 800 nm as heat. LED710 among those sources saved energy considerably comparing with the incandescent light, but the scattering and absorption was a problem in light transmission within the deep region of a bioreactor due to its own weak light intensity. Fluorescent light was inefficient in desulfurization in comparison with light sources illuminating with wide wavelength range, because of the weak transmittance at the peak wavelength of 460 nm. A combination of LED710 and fluorescent lamp was estimated as an optimal light source in this study.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The intracellular symbiotes of Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia oncopelti can be eliminated from cultures of the flagellates by a single chloramphenicol (CAP) treatment. Effective dosages were determined to be 0.01–0.08% (w/v) CAP after a treatment for 2 weeks or more for B. culicis and 0.08% (w/v) after 1 month for C. oncopelti in most cases. Ineffective dosages only lowered the numbers of symbiote-bearing flagellates. Growth of both species of flagellates in the presence of CAP was reduced in proportion to the drug concentration. Repeated subcultures at effective dosages yielded symbiote-free flagellates, which maintained a low level of growth rate. After repeated subcultures at ineffective dosages, the growth rate rose and the symbiote-bearing cells, initially very few, increased in number. The lowest effective dosages proved to be marginal, often producing symbiote-free cultures, but occasionally cultures with a few symbiote-bearing cells. After repeated subcultures at these drug concentrations, symbiote-containing cultures grew faster than the symbiote-free cultures. Hence, the symbiotic bacteria benefit the growth of their hosts, perhaps by supplying essential factors that are inadequate even in a rich blood medium.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SYNOPSIS. Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) at 0.5 mm had little effect in vitro on Blastocrithidia culicis, Crithidia oncopelti, and Leishmania spp., but completely inhibited growth of Trypanosoma brucei. Inhibition became irreversible after a 3-h exposure of T. brucei culture procyclics. Treated organisms remained motile, but failed to divide. Polyamines, spermidine, and spermine, did not reverse the anti-trypanosome action of MGBG (preloading of cells or concurrent administration). Two intraperitoneal injections of the drug at a concentration of 50 mg kg body weight at a 1-day interval greatly reduced the parasitemia of T. brucei and T. congolense in rats. Trypanosome infections, however, relapsed and killed the animals in 6 days after treatment. It was evident from the results of tracer experiments with T. brucei that MGBG significantly lowered incorporation of [3H]thymidine by culture procyclics and of [3H]uridine by bloodstream forms; in both stages [3H]leucine incorporation was only slightly inhibited. It is suggested that MGBG interferes with nucleoside incorporation by Trypanosoma and that its mode of action is different in bloodstream and culture procyclics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SYNOPSIS. An electron microscope study of diplosomes in Blastocrithidia culicis and bipolar bodies in Crithidia oncopelti has shown that both entities appear to be intracellular symbiotes and have a similar fine structure. They are enclosed by 2 unit membranes which are separated by a large space of very low density. The outer membrane is derived probably from the host cell. The matrix of the symbiotes is composed of dense ribosome-like particles and of areas of low density containing fine fibrillae. The particles are of the same size as ribosomes in bacteria and the fibrils have the characteristics of bacterial DNA. Thus, the lucid areas with fibrillae correspond to the nucleoids in bacteria. These observations suggest that the symbiotes are bacteria.The effect of chloramphenicol (CAP) and penicillin G (PCL) on these symbiotic bacteria was studied by culturing the host flagellates in media containing the antibiotics. The effect was analyzed at different intervals after the treatment by electron microscopy. After single treatment in the blood broth containing 0.08% (w/v) CAP, symbiotes appeared to have enlarged nucleoids, became deformed and eventually degenerated. In Grace's medium (supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum) containing 0.6 or 2.4% (w/v) PCL, symbiotes of C. oncopelti remained unaltered, whereas some symbiotes of B. culicis became pleomorphic. Symbiotes of both species persisted after repeated transfers in PCL media and reverted to normal forms when transferred to PCL-free media. Sensitivity of symbiotes to CAP provides further evidence of their bacterial nature. The effect of PCL on the symbiotes of B. culicis suggests the presence in their cell envelopes of mucopeptide, which probably provides rigidity for maintaining the bacterial shape of the symbiotes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SYNOPSIS. Several aposymbiotic strains of Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia oncopelti were cultivated in Trager's chemically defined medium as well as in a blood broth, both supplemented with 0.25% (v/v) liver extract concentrate. For all such strains, the liver extract was found to serve as an essential growth factor in the defined medium and as growth promoting additive in the blood broth. The active molecules were found to be water-soluble, heat stable, dialyzable, and probably nonlipid fractions.Antisera were developed in rabbit against all the available aposymbiotic strains. An almost total cross-reactivity at very high titers was observed in reciprocal agglutination test using strains with and without the bacterial symbiotes. These results indicate that the loss of the symbiotes does not affect the antigenic identity of B. culicis and C. oncopelti.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: . Previously considered an exotic disease, canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum has recently been detected within the foxhound population in the United States and parts of Canada. Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in many areas of the world and dogs are considered a major reservoir host for human Leishmania infections. Human visceral leishmaniasis has recently emerged as an opportunistic infection among individuals co-infected with HIV/AIDS and in persons taking immunosuppressive drugs. We report the isolation of L. infantum from 3 naturally infected foxhounds from Virginia by culture of popliteal lymph node and bone marrow, and the development of an immunohistochemical test to detect the parasite in tissues.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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