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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: (Hordeum vulgare L.) ; Hordeum bulbosum ; Haploid production ; Floret culture ; Detached tiller culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A high efficiency of Hordeum bulbosum-mediated haploid production in barley has been achieved using a floret culture technique in which florets pollinated with Hordeum bulbosum are cultured on modified N6 media containing 0.5 mg/l kinetin and 1.2 mg/l2,4-D. Cultures were maintained at 25 °C with a 16 h photoperiod for 9 days before embryo rescue. In a comparison of haploid production efficiency using five F1 hybrids from winter x winter and winter x spring barley crosses, 41.6 haploid plants/100 florets pollinated were produced using floret culture. Using detached tiller culture, 13.5 haploid plants/100 florets pollinated were produced. Higher efficiencies achieved with floret culture are attributed to the formation of larger, differentiated embryos. Such embryos lead to higher frequencies of plant regeneration. The F1 from a winter x winter cross was inferior in haploid production compared to F1s from winter x spring crosses. No genotype x technique interaction was observed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key wordsLycopersicon esculentum ; L. pimpinellifolium ; Salt tolerance ; Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) ; Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) ; Seed germination ; Molecular markers ; Graphical genotyping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Most cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) are sensitive to salinity during seed germination and at later stages. Genetic resources for salt tolerance have been identified within the related wild species of tomato. The purpose of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for salt tolerance during germination in an inbred backcross (BC1S1) population of an interspecific cross between a salt-sensitive tomato breeding line (NC84173, maternal and recurrent parent) and a salt-tolerant Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium accession (LA722). Onehundred and nineteen BC1 individuals were genotyped for 151 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and a genetic linkage map was constructed. The parental lines and 119 BC1S1 families (self-pollinated progeny of 119 BC1 individuals) were evaluated for germination at an intermediate salt-stress level (150 mM NaCl+15 mM CaCl2, water potential approximately −850 kPa). Germination was scored visually as radicle protrusion at 8-h intervals for 28 consecutive days. Germination response was analyzed by survival analysis and the time to 25, 50, and 75% germination was determined. In addition, a germination index (GI) was calculated as the weighted mean of the time from imbibition to germination for each family/line. Interval mapping, single-marker analysis and distributional extreme analysis, were used to identify QTLs and the results of all three mapping methods were generally similar. Seven chromosomal locations with significant effects on salt tolerance were identified. The L. pimpinellifolium accession had favorable QTL alleles at six locations. The percentage of phenotypic variation explained (PVE) by individual QTLs ranged from 6.5 to 15.6%. Multilocus analysis indicated that the cumulative action of all significant QTLs accounted for 44.5% of the total phenotypic variance. A total of 12 pairwise epistatic interactions were identified, including four between QTL-linked and QTL-unlinked regions and eight between QTL-unlinked regions. Transgressive phenotypes were observed in the direction of salt sensitivity. The graphical genotyping indicated a high correspondence between the phenotypes of the extreme families and their QTL genotypes. The results indicate that tomato salt tolerance during germination can be improved by marker-assisted selection using interspecific variation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: RFLP ; Mapping ; Barley ; Genome ; Centromeres
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A map of the barley genome consisting of 295 loci was constructed. These loci include 152 cDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), 114 genomic DNA RFLP, 14 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), five isozyme, two morphological, one disease resistance and seven specific amplicon polymorphism (SAP) markers. The RFLP-identified loci include 63 that were detected using cloned known function genes as probes. The map covers 1,250 centiMorgans (cM) with a 4.2 cM average distance between markers. The genetic lengths of the chromosomes range from 124 to 223 cM and are in approximate agreement with their physical lengths. The centromeres were localized to within a few markers on all of the barley chromosomes except chromosome 5. Telomeric regions were mapped for the short (plus) arms of chromosomes 1, 2 and 3 and the long (minus) arm of chromosomes 7.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Lycopersicon esculentum ; L. pimpinellifolium ; Salt tolerance ; Vegetative growth ; Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) ; Quantitative trait loci (QTLs)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to salt tolerance during the vegetative stage in tomato were investigated using an interspecific backcross between a salt-sensitive Lycopersicon esculentum breeding line (NC84173, maternal and recurrent parent) and a salt-tolerant Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium accession (LA722). One hundred and nineteen BC1 individuals were genotyped for 151 RFLP markers and a linkage map was constructed. The parental lines and 119 BC1S1 families (self-pollinated progeny of the BC1 individuals) were evaluated for salt tolerance in aerated saline-solution cultures with the salt concentration gradually raised to 700 mM NaCl+70 mM CaCl2 (equivalent to an electrical conductivity of approximately 64 dS/m and a water potential of approximately −35.2 bars). The two parental lines were distinctly different in salt tolerance: 80% of the LA722 plants versus 25% of the NC84173 plants survived for at least 2 weeks after the final salt concentration was reached. The BC1S1 population exhibited a continuous variation, typical of quantitative traits, with the survival rate of the BC1S1 families ranging from 9% to 94% with a mean of 51%. Two QTL mapping techniques, interval mapping (using MAPMAKER/QTL) and single-marker analysis (using QGENE), were used to identify QTLs. The results of both methods were similar and five QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 (two QTLs), 3, 5 and 9. Each QTL accounted for between 5.7% and 17.7%, with the combined effects (of all five QTLs) exceeding 46%, of the total phenotypic variation. All QTLs had the positive QTL alleles from the salt-tolerant parent. Across QTLs, the effects were mainly additive in nature. Digenic epistatic interactions were evident among several QTL-linked and QTL-unlinked markers. The overall results indicate that tomato salt tolerance during the vegetative stage could be improved by marker-assisted selection using interspecific variation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley stripe rust ; RFLP ; QTL mapping ; Molecular marker-assisted backcrossing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two genes conferring resistance to the barley stripe rust found in Mexico and South America, previously identified as race 24, were mapped to the M arms of barley chromosomes 7 and 4 in a doubled haploid population using molecular markers and the quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach. The resistance gene on chromosome 7 had a major effect, accounting for 57% of the variation in disease severity. The resistance gene on chromosome 4 had a minor effect, accounting for 10% of the variation in trait expression. Two pairs of restriction fragment length polymorphism markers are being used to introgress the resistance genes to North American spring barley using molecular marker-assisted backcrossing.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Key wordsLycopersicon ; Marker-assisted selection (MAS) ; Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) ; Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) ; Salt tolerance ; Seed germination ; Selective genotyping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This study was conducted to identify randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring salt tolerance during germination in tomato. Germination response of an F2 population (2000 individuals) of a cross between UCT5 (Lycopersicon esculentum, salt-sensitive) and LA716 (L. pennellii, salt-tolerant) was evaluated at a salt-stress level of 175 mM NaCl+17.5 mM CaCl2 (water potential ca. –9.5 bars). Germination was scored visually as radicle protrusion at 6-h intervals for 30 consecutive days. Individuals at both extremes of the response distribution (i.e., salt-tolerants and salt-sensitives) were selected. The selected individuals were genotyped for 53 RAPD markers and allele frequencies at each marker locus were determined. The linkage association among the markers was determined using a “Mapmaker” program. Trait-based marker analysis (TBA) identified 13 RAPD markers at eight genomic regions that were associated with QTLs affecting salt tolerance during germination in tomato. Of these genomic regions, five included favorable QTL alleles from LA716, and three included favorable alleles from UCT5. The approximate effects of individual QTLs ranged from 0.46 to 0.82 phenotypic standard deviation. The results support our previous suggestion that salt tolerance during germination in tomato is polygenically controlled. The identification of favorable QTLs in both parents suggests the likelihood of recovering transgressive segregants in progeny derived from these genotypes. Results from this study are discussed in relation to using marker-assisted selection in breeding for salt tolerance.
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