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  • 1
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  International Conference on SARS - one year after the (first) outbreak; 20040508-20040511; Lübeck; DOC04sarsP4.03 /20040526/
    Publication Date: 2004-05-26
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The nature of the tumour-infiltrating leucocytes (TILs) is known to impact clinical outcome in carcinomas, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of tumour-infiltrating B cells (TIBs) remains controversial. Here, we investigate the impact of TIBs and their interaction with T cells on HCC patient prognosis. DESIGN: Tissue samples were obtained from 112 patients with HCC from Singapore, Hong Kong and Zurich and analysed using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. RNA expression of CD19, CD8A, IFNG was analysed using quantitative PCR. The phenotype of freshly isolated TILs was analysed using flow cytometry. A mouse model depleted of mature B cells was used for functional study. RESULTS: Tumour-infiltrating T cells and B cells were observed in close contact with each other and their densities are correlated with superior survival in patients with HCC. Furthermore, the density of TIBs was correlated with an enhanced expression of granzyme B and IFN-gamma, as well as with reduced tumour viability defined by low expression of Ki-67, and an enhanced expression of activated caspase-3 on tumour cells. CD27 and CD40 costimulatory molecules and TILs expressing activation marker CD38 in the tumour were also correlated with patient survival. Mice depleted of mature B cells and transplanted with murine hepatoma cells showed reduced tumour control and decreased local T cell activation, further indicating the important role of B cells. CONCLUSIONS: The close proximity of tumour-infiltrating T cells and B cells indicates a functional interaction between them that is linked to an enhanced local immune activation and contributes to better prognosis for patients with HCC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article epub ahead of print
    PubMed ID: 26669617
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  • 3
    Keywords: MODELS ; POPULATION ; SIGNAL ; BREAST-CANCER ; LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM ; COMMON VARIANT ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; RECOMBINATION HOTSPOTS ; IDENTIFIES 5 ; MYEOV
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies have identified prostate cancer susceptibility alleles on chromosome 11q13. As part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) Initiative, the region flanking the most significant marker, rs10896449, was fine mapped in 10 272 cases and 9123 controls of European origin (10 studies) using 120 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected by a two-staged tagging strategy using HapMap SNPs. Single-locus analysis identified 18 SNPs below genome-wide significance (P 〈 10(-8)) with rs10896449 the most significant (P = 7.94 x 10(-19)). Multi-locus models that included significant SNPs sequentially identified a second association at rs12793759 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, P = 4.76 x 10(-5), adjusted P = 0.004] that is independent of rs10896449 and remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing within the region. rs10896438, a proxy of previously reported rs12418451 (r(2) = 0.96), independent of both rs10896449 and rs12793759 was detected (OR = 1.07, P = 5.92 x 10(-3), adjusted P = 0.054). Our observation of a recombination hotspot that separates rs10896438 from rs10896449 and rs12793759, and low linkage disequilibrium (rs10896449-rs12793759, r(2) = 0.17; rs10896449-rs10896438, r(2) = 0.10; rs12793759-rs10896438, r(2) = 0.12) corroborate our finding of three independent signals. By analysis of tagged SNPs across similar to 123 kb using next generation sequencing of 63 controls of European origin, 1000 Genome and HapMap data, we observed multiple surrogates for the three independent signals marked by rs10896449 (n = 31), rs10896438 (n = 24) and rs12793759 (n = 8). Our results indicate that a complex architecture underlying the common variants contributing to prostate cancer risk at 11q13. We estimate that at least 63 common variants should be considered in future studies designed to investigate the biological basis of the multiple association signals
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21531787
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  • 4
    Abstract: Differential diagnosis and therapy of heterogeneous breast tumors poses a major clinical challenge. To address the need for a comprehensive, noninvasive strategy to define the molecular and functional profiles of tumors in vivo, we investigated a novel combination of metabolic PET and diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI in the polyoma virus middle T antigen transgenic mouse model of breast cancer. The implementation of a voxelwise analysis for the clustering of intra- and intertumoral heterogeneity in this model resulted in a multiparametric profile based on [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG)-PET and DW-MRI, which identified three distinct tumor phenotypes in vivo, including solid acinar, and solid nodular malignancies as well as cystic hyperplasia. To evaluate the feasibility of this approach for clinical use, we examined estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive breast tumors from five patient cases using DW-MRI and [(18)F]FDG-PET in a simultaneous PET/MRI system. The postsurgical in vivo PET/MRI data were correlated to whole-slide histology using the latter traditional diagnostic standard to define phenotype. By this approach, we showed how molecular, structural (microscopic, anatomic), and functional information could be simultaneously obtained noninvasively to identify precancerous and malignant subtypes within heterogeneous tumors. Combined with an automatized analysis, our results suggest that multiparametric molecular and functional imaging may be capable of providing comprehensive tumor profiling for noninvasive cancer diagnostics. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5512-22. (c)2016 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27466286
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  • 5
    Abstract: Adeno-associated viruses are members of the genus dependoviruses of the parvoviridae family. AAV vectors are considered promising vectors for gene therapy and genetic vaccination as they can be easily produced, are highly stable and non-pathogenic. Nevertheless, transduction of cells in vitro and in vivo by AAV in the absence of a helper virus is comparatively inefficient requiring high multiplicity of infection. Several bottlenecks for AAV transduction have previously been described, including release from endosomes, nuclear transport and conversion of the single stranded DNA into a double stranded molecule. We hypothesized that the bottlenecks in AAV transduction are, in part, due to the presence of host cell restriction factors acting directly or indirectly on the AAV-mediated gene transduction. In order to identify such factors we performed a whole genome siRNA screen which identified a number of putative genes interfering with AAV gene transduction. A number of factors, yielding the highest scores, were identified as members of the SUMOylation pathway. We identified Ubc9, the E2 conjugating enzyme as well as Sae1 and Sae2, enzymes responsible for activating E1, as factors involved in restricting AAV. The restriction effect, mediated by these factors, was validated and reproduced independently. Our data indicate that SUMOylation targets entry of AAV capsids and not downstream processes of uncoating, including DNA single strand conversion or DNA damage signaling. We suggest that transiently targeting SUMOylation will enhance application of AAV in vitro and in vivo.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26625259
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  • 6
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The nature of the tumour-infiltrating leucocytes (TILs) is known to impact clinical outcome in carcinomas, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of tumour-infiltrating B cells (TIBs) remains controversial. Here, we investigate the impact of TIBs and their interaction with T cells on HCC patient prognosis. DESIGN: Tissue samples were obtained from 112 patients with HCC from Singapore, Hong Kong and Zurich and analysed using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. RNA expression of CD19, CD8A, IFNG was analysed using quantitative PCR. The phenotype of freshly isolated TILs was analysed using flow cytometry. A mouse model depleted of mature B cells was used for functional study. RESULTS: Tumour-infiltrating T cells and B cells were observed in close contact with each other and their densities are correlated with superior survival in patients with HCC. Furthermore, the density of TIBs was correlated with an enhanced expression of granzyme B and IFN-gamma, as well as with reduced tumour viability defined by low expression of Ki-67, and an enhanced expression of activated caspase-3 on tumour cells. CD27 and CD40 costimulatory molecules and TILs expressing activation marker CD38 in the tumour were also correlated with patient survival. Mice depleted of mature B cells and transplanted with murine hepatoma cells showed reduced tumour control and decreased local T cell activation, further indicating the important role of B cells. CONCLUSIONS: The close proximity of tumour-infiltrating T cells and B cells indicates a functional interaction between them that is linked to an enhanced local immune activation and contributes to better prognosis for patients with HCC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26669617
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  • 7
    Abstract: Regular monitoring of drug regulatory agency web sites and similar resources for information on new drug approvals and changes to legal status of marketed drugs is impractical. It requires navigation through several resources to find complete information about a drug as none of the publicly accessible drug databases provide all features essential to complement in silico drug discovery. Here, we propose SuperDRUG2 (http://cheminfo.charite.de/superdrug2) as a comprehensive knowledge-base of approved and marketed drugs. We provide the largest collection of drugs (containing 4587 active pharmaceutical ingredients) which include small molecules, biological products and other drugs. The database is intended to serve as a one-stop resource providing data on: chemical structures, regulatory details, indications, drug targets, side-effects, physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. We provide a 3D-superposition feature that facilitates estimation of the fit of a drug in the active site of a target with a known ligand bound to it. Apart from multiple other search options, we introduced pharmacokinetics simulation as a unique feature that allows users to visualise the 'plasma concentration versus time' profile for a given dose of drug with few other adjustable parameters to simulate the kinetics in a healthy individual and poor or extensive metabolisers.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29140469
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  • 8
    Abstract: The discovery of RNAs (for example, messenger RNAs, non-coding RNAs) in sperm has opened the possibility that sperm may function by delivering additional paternal information aside from solely providing the DNA (1) . Increasing evidence now suggests that sperm small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) can mediate intergenerational transmission of paternally acquired phenotypes, including mental stress(2,3) and metabolic disorders(4-6). How sperm sncRNAs encode paternal information remains unclear, but the mechanism may involve RNA modifications. Here we show that deletion of a mouse tRNA methyltransferase, DNMT2, abolished sperm sncRNA-mediated transmission of high-fat-diet-induced metabolic disorders to offspring. Dnmt2 deletion prevented the elevation of RNA modifications (m(5)C, m(2)G) in sperm 30-40 nt RNA fractions that are induced by a high-fat diet. Also, Dnmt2 deletion altered the sperm small RNA expression profile, including levels of tRNA-derived small RNAs and rRNA-derived small RNAs, which might be essential in composing a sperm RNA 'coding signature' that is needed for paternal epigenetic memory. Finally, we show that Dnmt2-mediated m(5)C contributes to the secondary structure and biological properties of sncRNAs, implicating sperm RNA modifications as an additional layer of paternal hereditary information.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29695786
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  • 9
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    Unknown
    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  International Conference on SARS - one year after the (first) outbreak; 20040508-20040511; Lübeck; DOC04sars6.07 /20040526/
    Publication Date: 2004-05-26
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 10
    Keywords: radiotherapy ; evaluation ; LUNG ; ALGORITHM ; ALGORITHMS ; CT ; IMAGES ; imaging ; TOOL ; VOLUME ; SAMPLE ; ACCURACY ; validation ; NUCLEAR-MEDICINE ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; MARKER ; CONTRAST ; NO ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; MARKERS ; REGION ; REGISTRATION ; REGIONS ; LOCALIZATION ; COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY ; MOTION ; IMAGE REGISTRATION ; nuclear medicine ; STATES ; radiology ; ALIGNMENT ; intensity ; radiation therapy ; NUCLEAR ; technique ; USA ; DEFORMATIONS ; TOOLS ; PHANTOMS ; phantom ; MEDICINE ; SHAPE ; ERRORS ; STATE ; ADAPTIVE RADIATION-THERAPY ; computerised tomography ; medical image processing ; ONLINE MODIFICATION ; TECHNICAL NOTE
    Abstract: The looming potential of deformable alignment tools to play an integral role in adaptive radiotherapy suggests a need for objective assessment of these complex algorithms. Previous studies in this area are based on the ability of alignment to reproduce analytically generated deformations applied to sample image data, or use of contours or bifurcations as ground truth for evaluation of alignment accuracy. In this study, a deformable phantom was embedded with 48 small plastic markers, placed in regions varying from high contrast to roughly uniform regional intensity, and small to large regional discontinuities in movement. CT volumes of this phantom were acquired at different deformation states. After manual localization of marker coordinates, images were edited to remove the markers. The resulting image volumes were sent to five collaborating institutions, each of which has developed previously published deformable alignment tools routinely in use. Alignments were done, and applied to the list of reference coordinates at the inhale state. The transformed coordinates were compared to the actual marker locations at exhale. A total of eight alignment techniques were tested from the six institutions. All algorithms performed generally well, as compared to previous publications. Average errors in predicted location ranged from 1.5 to 3.9 mm, depending on technique. No algorithm was uniformly accurate across all regions of the phantom, with maximum errors ranging from 5.1 to 15.4 mm. Larger errors were seen in regions near significant shape changes, as well as areas with uniform contrast but large local motion discontinuity. Although reasonable accuracy was achieved overall, the variation of error in different regions suggests caution in globally accepting the results from deformable alignment
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19175149
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