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  • 1
    ISSN: 0965-1748
    Keywords: Carboxylesterase isozymes ; Insecticide resistance ; Nilaparvata lugens ; Purification
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Heat and mass transfer 26 (1991), S. 195-201 
    ISSN: 1432-1181
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Hier wurde das Problem der laminaren Zwangskonvektion in einem zweidimensionalen Kanal mit einem Wärmequellen-Feld numerisch untersucht. Die Oberflächen der Wärmequellen wurden als isotherm vorausgesetzt. Um die Genauigkeit des Ergebnisses zu verbessern, wurden die numerischen Berechnungen mit dem A.D.I.-Verfahren und dem SIMPLER-Algorithmus durchgeführt. Das grundlegende Ziel dieser Arbeit sind die wesentlichen Wärmeübertragungsphänomene in L.S.I.-Paketen zu untersuchen, welche vorwiegend in Geräten der Mikroelektronik verwendet werden. Diese Untersuchung liefert nicht nur einen Beitrag für akademische Zwecke, sondern ist auch für die industrielle Anwendung gedacht. Der Einfluß der Reynolds-Zahl auf die Nusselt-Zahl der Wärmequellen wurde besprochen. Die Berechnungen wurden für verschiedene Zusammenstellungen der Wärmequellen gemacht. Strömungsbilder, Druck- und Temperaturverteilungen sind dargestellt worden.
    Notes: Abstract The problem of laminar forced convection in a two-dimensional channel with arrays of thermal sources is studied numerically. The surfaces of the thermal sources are assumed to be isothermal. In order to promote the accuracy of the result, numerical computation is performed with alternating direction implicit (A.D.I.) method and SIMPLER algorithm. The primary purpose of this paper is to study the fundamental heat transfer phenomena in “L.S.I.” packages, which are widely used in microelectric equipments recently. The contribution of this study is not only on academic purpose but also on industrial application. Influence of Reynolds number on Nusselt number of thermal sources is discussed. Calculations are made under the conditions of different arrangements of the thermal sources. Flow patterns, pressure and temperature distributions are demonstrated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 41 (1949), S. 2400-2402 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In this letter, we report on the dc performance of chemical beam epitaxy grown InGaAs/InP hot electron transistors (HETs). The highest observed differential β (dIC/dIB) is over 100. The HETs have Pd/Ge/Ti/Al shallow ohmic base contacts with diffusion lengths less than 300 A(ring). Furthermore, we also demonstrated ballistic transport of electrons in an InGaAs/InP HET by obtaining an energy distribution of electrons with ∼60 meV full width at half maximum. The measured conduction band discontinuity of InGaAs/InP is 250.3 meV, which is 39.8% of the band gap difference.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0165-0327
    Keywords: Dexamethasone suppression test ; Dopamine ; Norepinephrine
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 8640-8644 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In this paper, we briefly described how to use the vector or biaxial vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to determine the angular dispersion of easy axis in a magnetically soft film. For each angle of rotation φ of the external field H, a pair of the Mx-hysteresis and My-hysteresis loops could be obtained. Then, we changed the φ setting from negative to positive, with φ=0° indicating the exact direction of the hard axis of the film. Note, the easy axis has been induced by a deposition field h during fabrication of the film. From the characteristics of the Mx-hysteresis and My-hysteresis loops, the condition |φ|〈φc≅1° defines the "in-center zone," and the condition |φ|〉φc defines the "off-center zone." The types of switching modes for the in-center and off-center zones, respectively, are different. Only the hysteresis behaviors in the latter zone are understood well for detailed explanations. Then, the normalized change ΔMy/MS due to the wall motions at the switching field |H|=HSW can be used to indicate the angular dispersion Δθ in the film. Co70Fe10Ni20 films were made with various deposition conditions in order to cause different degrees of dispersion in them. The result shows that it is possible to study the angular dispersion in a magnetically soft film via the vectorial VSM measurements. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Thermal plasma jet ; nonequilibrium characterization ; optical emission spectroscopy ; Stark broadening ; enthalpy probe ; electron density ; temperature and velocity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract An accurate determination of electron density, temperature, and velocity distributions is of primary interest for the characterization of steady-state thermal plasma spray jets. Our diagnostic capabilities based on optical emission spectroscopy include measurements of absolute emission coefficients and Stark broadening. In addition, enthalpy probe diagnostics has also been used for temperature and velocity measurements. Observation of large discrepancies between temperatures derived from absolute emission coefficients, Stark broadening, and from enthalpy probe measurements indicate that severe deviations from LTE (local thermal equilibrium) exist in various regimes of plasma spray jets. Nonequilibrum characterization of such turbulent thermal plasma jets suggests that diffusion of high-energy electrons into the fringes of plasma jets and deviations from chemical equilibrium due to high velocities in the core of plasma jets and entrainment of cold gas, are the main reasons for these discrepancies. The establishment of a reliable data base, taking these nonequilibrium effects into account, is a prerequisite for meaningful modeling of real plasma jets.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Thermal plasmas ; argon ; transport properties ; viscosity ; interatomic potentials ; collision integrals ; calculations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Reliable values of the viscosity in thermal argon plasmas are most important for our understanding of the momentum transfer and for realistic modeling of various plasma applications. Despite numerous attempts to determine reliable viscosity values over the last three decades, discrepancies still exist among the data reported by different authors. In this paper, a critical analysis is undertaken of calculated and experimental data of the argon viscosity based on recent publications. Our recalculation of viscosities in thermal argon plasmas are performed by using Lennard-Jones, Morse, Aziz, and exponential repulsive potentials for Ar-Ar atom interactions in different temperature ranges from 300 to 20,000 K. The contributions of elastic collisions of e-Ar, e-Ar+, and Ar+-Ar, as well as charge exchange of Ar+-Ar, to the viscosity become important with increasing temperature and degree of ionization in argon plasmas. Based on a critical analysis and recalculations, improved values of the argon viscosity are recommended, covering temperatures from 300 to 20,000 K. Polynomial expressions have been developed for calculating argon viscosities, which will be useful for numerical work and other applications of thermal argon plasmas at atmospheric pressure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Phytochemistry 30 (1991), S. 2793-2795 
    ISSN: 0031-9422
    Keywords: Pinaceae ; Pinus armandii ; abietane-type ; coumarin ; diterpenoidal acids ; flavone ; labdane-type ; lignans ; sterols.
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 72 (1992), S. 2340-2346 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A theoretical model for quantum well varactors is presented. The model is used to calculate the device C-V and I-V characteristics and very good agreement has been found between the calculated and measured results. Based on the model, a triple barrier double well varactor has been designed and fabricated. A very high capacitance ratio within a very small bias range is achieved, as designed. Details of the design calculations and experimental results are presented.
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