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  • 1
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Microsatellite instability is an important characteristic of many tumor types1–8 especially those associated with hereditary non–polyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC) syndrome6–8. Microsatellite alterations in 50% of primary small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) have been ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The generation of Maxwell displacement current (MDC) across nematic liquid crystal (LC) cells triggered by the conformational change of surface monolayers is analyzed. It is theoretically shown that the change in the internal electric field formed in LC cells by the polarized surface monolayers and the change in the capacitance of LC cells due to the change in the orientational alignment of LCs are responsible for the generation of MDC. Based on this theoretical analysis, we discuss MDCs across p-pentyl-p-cyano-biphenyl LC cells induced by photoisomerization of surface azobenzene monolayers. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7233
    Keywords: mutation detection ; microsatellite DNA ; circulating DNA ; cancer ; plasma/serum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Small amounts of free DNA circulate in both healthy and diseased human plasma/serum, and increased concentrations of DNA are present in the plasma of cancer patients. Characteristics of tumour DNA have been found in genetic material extracted from the plasma of cancer patients. These features include decreased strand stability and the presence of specific oncogene, tumour suppressor gene and microsatellite alterations. Point mutations of the ras genes have been detected in the plasma DNA of patients suffering from haematopoetic malignancies, colorectal and pancreatic cancer, sometimes prior to clinical diagnosis. Rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain DNA has been found in the plasma of patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma and acute B cell leukaemia. Microsatellite instability, expressed either as a new allele or a loss of one allele (LOH) occurs in the plasma and serum DNA of patients suffering from head and neck, lung and renal cell cancer. The results obtained in many different cancers have opened a new research area indicating that plasma DNA might eventually be a suitable target for the development of non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic and follow-up tests for cancer.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Temperature-Controlled Irrigated Tip Ablation. Introduction: In patients with ventricular tachycardias due to structural heart disease, catheter ablation cures 〈 60% partly due to the limited lesion size after conventional radiofrequency ablation. Irrigated tip radiofrequency ablation using power control and high infusion rates enlarges lesion size, hut has increased risk of cratering. The present study explores irrigated tip catheter ablation in temperature- controlled mode, target temperature 60°C, using an irrigation rate of 1 mL/min, comparing this to conventional catheter technique, target temperature 80°C. Methods and Results: In vivo anesthetized pigs were ablated in the left ventricle. In vitro strips of porcine left ventricular myocardium were ablated in a tissue bath. Lesion volume was significantly larger after irrigated tip ablation both in vivo (544 ± 218 vs 325 ± 194 mm3, P 〈 0.01) and in vitro (286 ± 113 vs 179 ± 23 mm3, P 〈 0.01). The incidence of cratering was not significantly different between the two groups. In vivo, no coagulum formation on part of the catheter tip was seen after irrigated tip ablation as opposed to 52% of the applications with conventional ablation (P 〈 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation with irrigated tip catheters using low target temperature and low infusion rate enlarges lesion size without increasing the incidence of cratering and reduces coagulum formation of the tip.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Recurrence After RF Ablation of AP. Introduction: Many issues regarding the recurrence of accessory pathway conduction and the long-term outcome of late block of accessory pathway conduction are still unknown or controversial. Methods and Results: Data from 217 patients who underwent an initially successful radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways and 7 patients with late block of accessory pathway conduction following an initially unsuccessful ablation were analyzed. During a mean follow-up of 19 ± 11 months, accessory pathway conduction resumed in 21 (10%) of 217 patients following an initially successful ablation and in 6 (86%) of 7 patients with late block of accessory pathway conduction (P 〈 0.01). After initially successful ablations, the recurrence rates of accessory pathway conduction at 1, 3, and 6 months were 5.9%, 7.4%, and 11.3%, respectively. A late electrophysiologic study at 6 months uncovered recurrence in only 1 of 124 asymptomatic patients, but failed to detect the late recurrence in 2 patients in whom the accessory pathway conduction resumed after more than 6 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors for recurrence of accessory pathway conduction were concealed accessory pathway, presence of transient effect of radiofrequency pulse, and more than 5 pulses required for initial cure. Accessory pathway location, length of the tip electrode of the ablation catheter, and repeat radiofrequency pulses (“safety pulses”) after effective pulses did not predict resumption of accessory pathway conduction. Conclusions: After initially successful ablation, the recurrence rates of accessory pathway conduction at 1, 3, and 6 months were 5.9%, 7.4%, and 11.3%, respectively. Late electrophysiologic testing had little prognostic value in asymptomatic patients following successful ablation. Application of “safety pulses” did not prevent recurrence. Late block of accessory pathway conduction did not predict long-term efficacy.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Idiopathic Left Ventricular Tachycardia. Introduction: Idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia with a QRS pattern of right bundle branch block and left-axis deviation constitutes a rare but electrophysiologically distinct arrhythmia entity. The underlying mechanism of this tachycardia, however, is still a matter of controversy. This report describes findings in a 42-year-old man who underwent successful radiofrequency catheter ablation of idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia. Methods and Results: On electrophysiologic study, the tachycardia was reproducibly induced and terminated with double ventricular extrastimuli. Intravenous verapamil terminated the tachycardia whereas adenosine did not. Detailed left ventricular catheter mapping during sinus rhythm revealed a fragmented delayed potential at the mid-apical region of the inferior site near the posterior fascicle of the left bundle branch. At the same site, continuous electrical activity throughout the entire cardiac cycle was recorded during ventricular tachycardia. Repeated spontaneous termination of this continuous electrical activity in late diastole was followed immediately by termination of the tachycardia. Single application of radiofrequency current for 20 seconds at this site completely abolished inducibility of the tachycardia. After catheter ablation, at the identical site of preablation recording of the fractionated potential during sinus rhythm, no fragmented delayed activity could be recorded. There was no complication from the ablation procedure. Conclusion: The preablation recordings of fragmented delayed potentials during sinus rhythm and continuous diastolic electrical activity during tachycardia, together with ablation characteristics and previously reported electrophysiologic properties of this arrhythmia, may further support microreentry as the underlying mechanism in idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Variants of Preexcitation. introduction: In the present report, the electrophysiiologic findings in patients with different types of variants of preeexcitwtion, i.e., atriofascicualr, nodofacicular, and fasciculoventricular fibers, and the results of radiofrequency catheter ablation using different target sites are described. Methods and Results: Twelve patients (mean age 36 ± 17 years) with variants of the preexcitation syndromes underwent electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation. The atrial origin of atriofascicular pathways remote from the normal AV node was assessed by application of late atrial extrastimuli that advanced (“reset”) the timing of the next QRS complex without anterograde penetration into the AV node. In patients with atriofacicular pathways, ablation of the accessory pathway or the retrograde fast AV node pathway was attempted. Ablation of the atriofascicular pathways was guided by a stimulus-delta wave interval mapping in the first live patients and by recording of atriofascicular pathway activation potentials in the next five patients. A nodofascicular pathway was suggested if VA dissociation occurred during tachycardia and if atrial extrastimuli failed to reset the tachycardia without anterograde penetration into the AV node. A fasciculoventricular connection was suggested if the proximal insertion of the accessory pathway was found to arise from the His bundle or bundle branches. The PR interval was expected within normal limits during sinus rhythm and the QRS complex to he slightly prolonged with a discrete slurring of the R wave, suggesting a small delta wave. Ten of the 12 patients had evidence for atriofascicular pathways and one patient each for a nodofascicular and fasciculoventricular pathway. In six patients, the atriofascicular pathways were successfully ablated, and in two patients, the retrograde fast AV node pathway. In one patient, a concealed right posteroseptal accessory AV pathway served as the retrograde limb and was successfully ablated. The nodofascicular pathway was shown to he a bystander during AV node reentrant tachycardia. After successful fast AV node pathway ablation resulting in marked PR prolongation, no preexcitation was present during sinus rhythm because of the proximal insertion of the nodofascicular pathway distal to the delay producing parts of the AV node. The proximal insertion of the fasciculoventricular pathway was suggested to arise distal to the AV node at the site of the penetrating AV bundle. The earliest ventricular activation at the His-bundle recording site indicated the ventricular insertion of this accessory connection into the ventricular summit. The fasciculoventricular connection gave rise to a fixed ventricular preexcitation and served as a bystander during orthodromic AV reentrant tachycardia incorporating a left-sided accessory AV pathway.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: THØGERSEN, A.M., et al.: Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator in a 4-Month-Old Infant with Cardiac Arrest Associated with a Vascular Heart Tumor. A previously healthy male infant was resuscitated after spontaneous ventricular fibrillation at 9 weeks of age. Echocardiography revealed three tumors in the left ventricle not amenable to complete resection. Despite treatment with antiarrhythmic agents the ventricular arrhythmias continued. When the child was 4 months old and weighed 7 kg an ICD system was implanted using epicardial sense-pacing leads and a superior vena caval lead as a subcutaneous defibrillator coil placed posterior on the left thorax. Shocks were delivered between the subcutaneous coil lead and the intraabdominally placed ICD can. This ICD array system has not been reported previously.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The limited success rate of radiofrequency catheter ablation in patients with ventricular tachycardias related to structural heart disease may be increased by enlarging the lesion size. Irrigated tip catheter ablation is a new method for enlarging the size of the lesion. It was introduced in the power-controlled mode with high power and high infusion rate, and is associated with an increased risk of crater formation, which is related to high tissue temperatures. The present study explored the tissue temperatures during temperature-controlled irrigated tip ablation, comparing it with standard temperature-controlled ablation and power-controlled irrigated tip ablation. In vitro strips of porcine left ventricular myocardium were ablated. Temperature-controlled irrigated tip ablation at target temperatures 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C with infusion of 1 mL saline/min were compared with standard temperature-controlled ablation at 70°C and power-controlled irrigated tip ablation at 40 W, and infusion of 20 mL/min. Lesion size and tissue temperatures were significantly higher during all modes of irrigated tip ablation compared with standard temperature-controlled ablation (P 〈 0.05). Lesion volume correlated positively with tissue temperature (r = 0.87). The maximum recorded tissue temperature was always 1 mm from the ablation electrode and was 67 ± 4°C for standard ablation and 93 ± 6°C, 99 ± 6°C, and 115 ± 13°C for temperature-controlled irrigated tip ablation at 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C, respectively, and 112 ± 12°C for power-controlled irrigated tip ablation, which for irrigated tip ablation was significantly higher than tip temperature (P 〈 0.0001). Crater formation only occurred at tissue temperatures 〉 100°C. We conclude that irrigated tip catheter ablation increases lesion size and tissue temperatures compared with standard ablation in the temperature-controlled mode at the same or higher target temperatures and in the power-controlled mode. Furthermore, tissue temperature and delivered power are the best indicators of lesion volume during temperature-controlled ablation.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Routinely the active can ICD is placed in the left side pectoral position, which theoretically gives optimal conditions for a low defibrillation threshold. Some patients, bowever, demand a right pectoral position, which possibly could result in a bigger defibrillation threshold. A right pectoral position was used in 3 of 85 active can ICDs implanted in our institution from 1994. the DFT was 12 J in two and 18 f in one patient. Thus, right pectoral implantation is feasible and offers an alternative approach in selected patients.
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