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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; COMBINATION ; LUNG ; MODEL ; MODELS ; TOXICITY ; CLASSIFICATION ; liver ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; microarray ; validation ; QUALITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; PERFORMANCE ; gene expression ; MICROARRAY DATA ; HUMANS ; microarrays ; PREDICTION ; PROJECT ; FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; rodent ; neuroblastoma ; development ; methods ; GENE-EXPRESSION DATA ; DNA MICROARRAYS ; rodents ; RECOMMENDATIONS ; EXPRESSION DATA ; CONTROL MAQC PROJECT ; PUBLISHED MICROARRAY ; RISK-STRATIFICATION
    Abstract: Gene expression data from microarrays are being applied to predict preclinical and clinical endpoints, but the reliability of these predictions has not been established. In the MAQC-II project, 36 independent teams analyzed six microarray data sets to generate predictive models for classifying a sample with respect to one of 13 endpoints indicative of lung or liver toxicity in rodents, or of breast cancer, multiple myeloma or neuroblastoma in humans. In total, 〉30,000 models were built using many combinations of analytical methods. The teams generated predictive models without knowing the biological meaning of some of the endpoints and, to mimic clinical reality, tested the models on data that had not been used for training. We found that model performance depended largely on the endpoint and team proficiency and that different approaches generated models of similar performance. The conclusions and recommendations from MAQC-II should be useful for regulatory agencies, study committees and independent investigators that evaluate methods for global gene expression analysis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: This paper reports a new route to synthesize calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 )-based nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs) via an in situ formation method to form the CaCO 3 nanoparticles with a polysiloxane quaternary ammonium salt (PQAC) corona (PQAC-CaCO 3 nanoparticles), followed by an ionic exchange reaction to fabricate a poly(ethylene glycol)-tailed sulfonate anion (NPEP) canopy. The chemical compositions and structures of the CaCO 3 -based NIMs synthesized in this work were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopic observation indicated that the CaCO 3 -based NIMs presented a rhombohedral shape with a well-defined core-shell structure, and they also obtained an NPEP canopy with a thickness of 4–6 nm. X-ray powder diffraction investigation confirmed that the CaCO 3 inner core had a calcite crystalline structure, whereas the NPEP canopy was amorphous. The NPEP canopy was found to show a characteristic crystallization–melting behaviour in the presence of the ion bonding with PQAC-CaCO 3 nanoparticles according to the characterization of differential scanning calorimetry. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the CaCO 3 -based NIMs achieved a high content of NPEP canopy as well as an improvement in thermal stability owing to the ion-bonding effect. Most of all, the CaCO 3 -based NIMs demonstrated a liquid-like behaviour above the critical temperature in the absence of solvent. Moreover, the CaCO 3 -based NIMs also showed a relatively high electrical conductivity with a temperature dependency due to the ionic conductive effect. This work will provide a more feasible and energy-saving methodology for the preparation of CaCO 3 -based NIMs to promote their industrialization and extensive applications.
    Keywords: inorganic chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-03
    Description: Long-term immunity depends partly on the establishment of memory CD8 + T cells. We identified a counterregulatory network between the homologous transcription factors ZEB1 and ZEB2 and the miR-200 microRNA family, which modulates effector CD8 + T cell fates. Unexpectedly, Zeb1 and Zeb2 had reciprocal expression patterns and were functionally uncoupled in CD8 + T cells. ZEB2 promoted terminal differentiation, whereas ZEB1 was critical for memory T cell survival and function. Interestingly, the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and miR-200 family members, which counterregulate the coordinated expression of Zeb1 and Zeb2 during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inversely regulated Zeb1 and Zeb2 expression in CD8 + T cells. TGF-β induced and sustained Zeb1 expression in maturing memory CD8 + T cells. Meanwhile, both TGF-β and miR-200 family members selectively inhibited Zeb2. Additionally, the miR-200 family was necessary for optimal memory CD8 + T cell formation. These data outline a previously unknown genetic pathway in CD8 + T cells that controls effector and memory cell fate decisions.
    Keywords: Autoimmunity, Infectious Disease and Host Defense
    Print ISSN: 0022-1007
    Electronic ISSN: 1540-9538
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: As adipose tissue is the major cholesterol storage organ and most of the intracellular cholesterol is distributed to lipid droplets (LDs), cholesterol homeostasis may have a role in the regulation of adipocyte size and function. ACATs catalyze the formation of cholesteryl ester (CE) from free cholesterol to modulate the cholesterol balance. Despite the well-documented role of ACATs in hypercholesterolemia, their role in LD development during adipogenesis remains elusive. Here, we identify ACATs as regulators of de novo lipogenesis and LD formation in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Pharmacological inhibition of ACAT activity suppressed intracellular cholesterol and CE levels, and reduced expression of genes involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux. ACAT inhibition resulted in decreased de novo lipogenesis, as demonstrated by reduced maturation of SREBP1 and SREBP1-downstream lipogenic gene expression. Consistent with this observation, knockdown of either ACAT isoform reduced total adipocyte lipid content by approximately 40%. These results demonstrate that ACATs are required for storage ability of lipids and cholesterol in adipocytes.
    Print ISSN: 0022-2275
    Electronic ISSN: 1539-7262
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-20
    Description: Quantum teleportation, which is the transfer of an unknown quantum state from one station to another over a certain distance with the help of nonlocal entanglement shared by a sender and a receiver, has been widely used as a fundamental element in quantum communication and quantum computation. Optical fibers are crucial information channels, but teleportation of continuous variable optical modes through fibers has not been realized so far. Here, we experimentally demonstrate deterministic quantum teleportation of an optical coherent state through fiber channels. Two sub-modes of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state are distributed to a sender and a receiver through a 3.0-km fiber, which acts as a quantum resource. The deterministic teleportation of optical modes over a fiber channel of 6.0 km is realized. A fidelity of 0.62 ± 0.03 is achieved for the retrieved quantum state, which breaks through the classical limit of 1 / 2 . Our work provides a feasible scheme to implement deterministic quantum teleportation in communication networks.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary (3H)Nitrendipine binding to the bovine tracheal muscle membrane at 25°C was rapid, saturable (Bmax=14.8±3.9fmol/mg protein) and of high affinity (Kd=0.15±0.04 nM). The rank order of Ca2+ antagonists competing for airway (3H)nitrendipine binding was nitrendipine $$ \doteqdot $$ nisoldipine $$ \doteqdot $$ nifedipine » verapamil. Cromolyn, however, neither inhibited nor increased the binding.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Inflammation research 29 (1990), S. 181-183 
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Gorgonian ; brianolide ; diterpene ; Briareum sp. ; antiinflammatory activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Brianolide (1), a new antiinflammatory diterpenoid of the briarein class, possessing a β substituent at C-12 (R), has been isolated from the Okinawan gorgonianBriareum sp. Its structure has been established from spectral data in conjunction with a single crystal X-ray analysis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: PACS: 43.20; 66.30
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Studied in this paper is the problem of transient thermal conduction and temperature distribution generated by laser pulses in a planar sample. Both of the classical parabolic and the hyperbolic equations of heat transport have been solved analytically and numerically, and the results indicate that the correction term of a finite thermal propagation velocity included in the hyperbolic equation can be ignored in the normal case. However, under some special conditions, such as in low-temperature or in a short-transient process, the influence of the propagation term must be considered. In these cases, the thermal conduction will behave as an attenuated wave motion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Clonidine ; Antinociception ; Diencephalic periventricular gray ; Periaqueductal gray ; Dorsal raphe nuclei ; Serotonin ; Ketanserine ; Methysergide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. The effects of changes in central serotoninergic transmission on clonidine analgesia were assessed in monkeys. The minimum electrical current required for producing jaw opening is referred to as the pain threshold. Pain was induced by electrical stimulation of tooth pulp afferents. 2. In the first series of studies, intracerebroventricular administration of clonidine (5–30 μg) produced dose-dependent analgesia in monkeys. The clonidine-induced analgesia was abolished or attenuated by prior injection of the animals with p-chlorophenylalanine or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the third cerebral ventricle. On the other hand, pretreatment of the animals by injecting 5-HT or its precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan into the cerebral ventricle potentiated the clonidine-induced analgesia in monkeys. 3. In the second series of experiments, administration of clonidine (1–10 μg) into the diencephalic periventricular gray (of the anterior hypothalamic portion), the periaqueductal gray, or the dorsal raphe nuclei also produced dose-dependent analgesia in monkeys. The analgesia induced by clonidine injection into the diencephalic periventricular gray or the periaqueductal gray was effectively antagonized by pretreatment of the animals by injecting two 5-HT receptor antagonists (such as ketanserine and methysergide) into the diencephalic periventricular gray or the periaqueductal gray. The clonidine-induced analgesia in monkeys was not affected by pretreatment of the animals with injections of either ketanserine or methysergide into the dorsal raphe nuclei. 4. The results suggest that the functional activity of central 5-HT neurons correlate well with the analgesic sensitivity of clonidine microinjected centrally. In addition, the analgesia induced by clonidine microinjected into the diencephalic periventricular gray or the periaqueductal gray was mediated by the 5-HT receptors at the site of injection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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