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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die quantitative gas-chromatographische Bestimmung des Zinngehaltes von Zirkonium-Zinnlegierungen (Zircaloy) wird beschrieben. Die Metallprobe wird mit gasförmigem Chlor umgesetzt. Nach Abtrennung des Zirkoniumtetrachlorids und des Chlorüberschusses erfolgt die Bestimmung von Zinnchlorid auf gas-chromatographischem Wege. Die Genauigkeit des Verfahrens ist derjenigen der herkömmlichen Verfahren vergleichbar. Der Zeitaufwand einer Bestimmung beträgt 30 min.
    Notes: Abstract The quantitative determination of tin in zirconiumtin alloys (Zircaloy) is described. The metallic sample is submitted to a reaction with gaseous chlorine. After removing the zirconium tetrachloride and an excess of chlorine, the tin tetrachloride is determined by gas chromatography. The accuracy of the method is comparable to that of the usual procedures. 30 min are required for one determination.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Surgical and radiologic anatomy 10 (1988), S. 187-194 
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Inferior vena cava ; Hepatic veins ; Vascular exclusion of the liver
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La réalisation de phlébographies occlusives segmentaires de la veine cave inférieure (VCI), d'injections-corrosions des réseaux porte et hépatico-cave, d'une biométrie de la VCI rétro-hépatique et de coupes sériées de foies injectés sur 64 sujets frais a permis de préciser les modalités anatomiques de l'exclusion vasculaire du foie (EVF). Certaines tumeurs hépatiques proches du carrefour peuvent bénéficier de l'EVF mais il faut clamper la veine surrénale principale droite et les veines phréniques inférieures. Le clampage de la VCI supra-hépatique dépend du siège du carrefour par rapport au diaphragme, il est possible par voie abdominale dans la majorité des cas (79 %). La veine hépatique droite principale peut être contrôlée hors du foie une fois sur deux environ car elle se termine alors par un tronc indemne de collatérale sur 1 cm. A gauche, le contrôle des veines hépatiques hors du foie est dangereux car le tronc commun réunissant les veines hépatiques moyenne et gauche est fréquent (84 %). Les rapports entre carrefour hépatico-cave, diaphragme et oreillette droite permettent également d'envisager certaines modalités de traitement des lésions hépatiques dans les membranes de la VCI terminale et le syndrome de Budd-Chiari.
    Notes: Summary Segmentai occlusive phlebography of the IVC, coupled with a slit in its posterior wall, injection of corrosive substances into the portal and hepatocaval network, biometry of the retrohepatic IVC and serial sections of injected livers from 64 subjects allowed a study of the anatomica aspects of VEL: the Pringle maneuver and clamping of the IVC above and below the hepatocaval connexion. Surgery for hepatic tumors close to the connexion can benefit from VEL but the right suprarenal and inferior phrenic veins must be clamped. Clamping of the suprahepatic IVC is dependent on the site at which the clamp is applied in relation to the diaphragm; an abdominal approach is possible in 79% of cases. The principal right hepatic vein, lacking a collateral over 1 cm external to the liver in one of every 2 cases, can be controlled outside the liver after mobilization of the lobe right of the liver, but caution is needed because of the predominance of “accessory” hepatic veins in 20% of cases. Control of the hepatic veins external to the liver on the left side is dangerous since a common trunk between the middle and left veins is frequent (84%). Collateral branches are also numerous and often vulnerable. Section of the left triangular ligament must be cautious. The relations between the hepatocaval connexion, diaphragm and right atrium also define modalities in the treatment of hepatic lesions such as membranes in the terminal IVC and the Budd-Chiari syndrome.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Hepatic veins ; Liver transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An anastomosis between the common trunk of the middle and left hepatic veins of the receiver and the cranial portion of the inferior vena cava of the donor is one of the techniques for restoration of hepato-caval continuity in orthotopic liver transplantation. This technique avoids dissection of the retrohepatic vena cava and total caval clamping. The aim of this study was to define the feasibility of this technique by a morphologic and biometric study of the common trunk of the middle and left hepatic veins on the basis of 64 injection-corrosion hepatic specimens and 21 fresh subjects. A common trunk for the middle and left hepatic veins was present in 54 of 64 cases (84%) with a length of 3 to 17 mm. The diameter of the new ostium constructed by section 0.5 cm proximal to the junction of the middle and left hepatic veins was 23.9 ± 2.3 mm, which approximated to that of the vena cava where it traversed the diaphragm (24.4 ± 2.0 mm). These findings confirmed that restoration of hepato-caval continuity by anastomosis between the common trunk of the middle and left hepatic veins of the receiver and the cranial portion of the vena cava of the graft is possible without incongruence. This study makes no assumptions about the hemodynamic effects associated with the smallest diameter of the true ostium of the common trunk at its opening into the inferior vena cava. In this study, the morphology of the common trunk was comparable to that observed by Nakamura. Further, we propose an anatomo-clinical classification allowing evaluation of the facility of vascular control of the common trunk in terms of the number and location of the collateral veins.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Gastrorenal shunts ; Splenorenal shunts ; Collateral gastric vein ; Portal hypertension ; Cirrhosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé L'hypertension portale se caractérise par le développement d'une circulation collatérale porto-cave. Parmi ces dérivations veineuses, certaines ont une topographie postérieure, localisée dans la loge sous-phrénique gauche. Ce sont les anastomoses spontanées splénorénales et gastro-rénales. Leur prévalence est estimée aux alentours de 16%. On distingue, d'une part, les shunts directs, qui anastomosent la v. splénique à la v. rénale gauche, de constatation anecdotique, non systématisés sur le plan anatomique ; d'autre part, les shunts splénorénaux spontanés indirects caractérisés par l'existence d'un pédicule complet vasculo-nerveux, cheminant dans le ligament gastro-phrénique. Il s'agit de la v. collatérale gastrique qui est reliée à la v. rénale gauche par l'intermédiaire de la v. inférieure du pilier gauche du diaphragme et de la v. capsulaire moyenne, d'où le nom de “shunt gastro-phrénocapsulo-rénal”. A un stade avancé de l'hypertension portale, ces shunts splénorénaux peuvent acquérir un calibre important et se comporter alors comme de véritables shunts chirurgicaux.
    Notes: Summary Portal hypertension is characterised by the development of a collateral portocaval circulation. Among these venous reroutings, some are situated posteriorly in the left subphrenic compartment. These are the spontaneous splenorenal and gastrorenal anastomoses. Their incidence is estimated at around 16%. On the one hand, there are the direct shunts, which anastomose the spelling v. to the left renal v., of an anecdotal nature, and on the other the spontaneous indirect splenorenal shunts, characterised by the presence of a complete neurovascular pedicle traversing the gastrophrenic ligament. This relates to the gastric collateral v., which is connected to the left renal v. via the inferior v. of the left crus of the diaphragm and the middle capsular v., hence the name “gastro-phreno-capsulorenal shunt”. At an advanced stage of portal hypertension these splenorenal shunts may acquire a major caliber and behave like actual surgical shunts.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-2451
    Keywords: Lebertrauma ; Tamponade ; Leberstielabklemmung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Most hepatic traumas are easily cured, but the series of 135 consecutive hepatic wounds reported in the present paper is unusual in that the patients were specifically recruited from among patients subjected to neurosurgical or spinal operations, 25% of whom sustained severe hepatic injuries (classes IV and V) as a result of the surgery. The postoperative mortality was analyzed according to such potentially predictive factors as severity of the hepatic wound, the concomitant extraabdominal lesions, the initial shock, and the kind of surgical treatment. The statistical comparison of the factors affecting the results was analyzed by the Chi-square test. The postoperative mortality rate was 24.4% (33 deaths). This mortality rate is evidently related to the severity of the hepatic lesions and to the frequent associated lesions. The 14 deaths from benign and moderate hepatic injuries were due to concomitant lesions. Among the 19 deaths from severe lesions, 12 were directly related to the severity of the hepatic injury and 7 to associated wounds. Complications directly related to the hepatic trauma occurred in 39 cases with 16 deaths. In general, conservative surgical treatment can be performed with quite low mortality. Among the patients who require hepatic resection one of two dies of hemorrhage or coagulopathy. Among conservative procedures, perihepatic packing has proved to be efficient and safe. If perioperative cholangiography has excluded any leak from a major bilde duct, septic complications are rare. Therefore, the surgical treatment of hepatic trauma should be as conservative as possible, because this can stop hemorrhage and decrease the risk of coagulopathy. It is better to perform perihepatic packing followed by a second operative on the 2nd day (possible after transfer to a more specialized unit) than to attempt hepatic resection as an emergency procedure, which could be hazardous.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Mehrzahl der Leberverletzungen ist relativ leicht zu behandeln. Die Besonderheit dieser Serie von 135 konsekutiven Leberverletzungen liegt in der lichen Anzahl von neurologischen and Wirbelsäulenverletzungen dieser Klinik (25% schwere Leberverletzungen der Klasse IV and V). Die postoperative Letalität wurde entsprechend einiger prognostischer Faktoren analysiert wie Schweregrad der Leberverletzung, extraabdominale Begleitverletzungen, initialer Schock und Art der chirurgischen Versorgung. Die Auswirkung dieser Faktoren auf das Ergebnis wurde durch den ChiSquare-Test durchgeführt. Die postoperative Letalität betrug 24,4% (33 Verstorbene). Diese Sterblichkeitsrate steht offenbar in Zusammenhang mit dem Schweregrad der Leberverletzungen und der Häufigkeit von Begleitverletzungen. 14 Todesfalle bei leichten and mittelschweren Leberverletzungen gehen zur Last von Begleitverletzunge. Unter den 19 an schweren Leberverletzungen Verstorbenen gehen 12 auf das Konto der Leberverletzung und 7 sind Begleitverletzungen zuzuschreiben. 39 Komplikationen (mit 16 Todesfällen) gehen direkt auf das Lebertrauma zurück. Während ein konservativ chirurgisches Vorgehen eine geringere Letalität bedeutet, führt eine Leberresektion zu einer 50%-Letalität durch Blutung und Koagulopathie. Unter den konservativen Verfahren hat sich die einfache Tamponade als wirksam und gefahrlos herausgestellt. Eine perioperative Cholangiographie kann grö\ere Gallenlecks entdecken und septische Komplikationen verhindern helfen. Alles in allem sollte die Behandlung des Lebertraumas so konservativ wie möglich sein. Eine Tamponade mit Relaparotomie nach 2 Tagen (evtl. nach Verlegung in eine Spezialeinheit) ist allemal einer gefährlichen Leberresektion als Notfalloperation vorzuziehen.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The lifetimes of the 235 keV, 2− state and 350 keV, 4+ state in44Sc have been measured via the44Ca(p, n)44Sc reaction with a pulsed proton beam. The time integral perturbed angular distribution technique with an external field was used to measure the precession angles of the 2− and 4+ states populated by the30Si(16O,pnγ)44Sc reaction. The following values for the mean-lives andg-factors were obtained: τ(2−)=8.83(33) ns, g(2−)=0.30(13) and τ(4+)=4.52(27)ns, g(4+)=0.90(12). The results for the 2− state support a rotational description of the negative parity states in44Sc. The magnetic moment of the 4+ state is compared to shell model predictions.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A gamma spectroscopic investigation of216Ra was performed by means of the reactions206Pb(13C, 3n) and208Pb(12C, 4n). Yield functions, angular distributions,γ−γ coincidences, time centroid shifts and pulsed beam isomeric decay rates were measured. The yrast level structure is firmly established up to spin 14 and information on theγ-transitions from higher lying levels is also obtained. The configurations of the low-lying levels are discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: 21.10.Ft ; 23.20.Lv ; 27.90.+b
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The high spin state structure of the nucleus220Ac was investigated by means of the209Bi(14C, 3n) reaction. In beamγ ray spectroscopy was carried out using the Château de Cristal multidetector array. Gamma ray multipolarities were established by extracting directional correlation ratios from the Ge—Ge coincidence data and by intensity balance considerations. The level scheme, established up to 18 ħ above the lowest observed state, consists of three alternating parity bands. The data are interpreted in terms of the reflection asymmetric shapes of the nucleus. The analysis of the parity doublet candidates does not show the decrease of the parity splitting predicted for an odd-odd nucleus.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: PACS. 24.75.+i General properties of fission – 61.85.+p Channeling phenomena (blocking, energy loss, etc.)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract: Crystal blocking lifetime measurements have been made for highly excited Th nuclei with neutron number well removed from the stability line. Thin W crystals were bombarded with 32S ions in the energy range 170-180 MeV and the yield of fission fragments was measured for emission close to a 〈111〉 axis. The fission blocking dips are compared to the appropriately scaled ones for elastic scattering of the 32S beam ions and no significant difference is seen between the dips. This implies that the fraction of nuclei fissioning with lifetimes longer than 10 as is less than 2%. Fission lifetimes are increased by viscosity in the nuclear mass flow and comparison with a statistical model calculation indicates that the viscosity parameter, η, must be lower than for Th and U nuclei near β-stability. The effect of the N = 126 magic number is discussed.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 57 (1990), S. 2791-2793 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have investigated the behavior of atomic hydrogen (or deuterium) introduced by plasma in highly doped GaInAs:Zn epitaxial layers. Different experimental techniques have been used: secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) profiling, electronic transport measurements, and infrared absorption spectroscopy. After hydrogenation the concentration of free holes is drastically reduced. SIMS profiles follow erfc functions. This corresponds to weak hydrogen-dopant interactions. This weakness is confirmed by the annealing experiments from which a low dissociation energy can be estimated.
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