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  • 1
    Keywords: chemokine receptor CCR5, knockout mice, renal transplantation, alternative macrophage activation
    Abstract: The chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) has been implicated in experimental and clinical allograft rejection. To dissect the function of CCR5 in acute and chronic renal allograft rejection, bilaterally nephrectomized WT and Ccr5-/- C57BL/6 mice were used as recipients of WT BALB/c renal allografts and analyzed 7 and 42 days after transplantation. Lesion scores (glomerular damage, vascular rejection, tubulointerstitial inflammation) and numbers of CD4+, CD8+, CD11c+ and alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA)+ cells were reduced in allografts from Ccr5-/- recipients during the chronic phase. Increasing creatinine levels indicated deterioration of allograft function over time. While mRNA expression of Th1-associated markers decreased between 7 and 42 days, Th2-associated markers increased. Markers for alternatively activated macrophages (arginase 1, chitinase 3-like 3, resistin-like alpha, mannose receptor, C type 1), were strongly upregulated (mRNA and/or protein level) only in allografts from Ccr5-/- recipients at 42 days. Ccr5 deficiency shifted intragraft immune responses during the chronic phase towards the Th2 type and led to accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages. Additionally, splenocytes from unchallenged Ccr5-/- mice showed significantly increased arginase 1 and mannose receptor 1 mRNA levels, suggesting constitutive alternative activation of splenic macrophages. We conclude that Ccr5 deficiency favors alternative macrophage activation. This finding may be relevant for other inflammatory diseases that involve macrophage activation and may also influence future therapeutic strategies targeting CCR5.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19830734
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  • 2
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; microarray ; PROTEINS ; TISSUE ; HEART ; MICE ; INFECTION ; MECHANISM ; REDUCTION ; TRANSPLANTATION ; DOMAIN ; mechanisms ; T cell ; T-CELL ; knockout ; IDENTIFICATION ; gene expression ; affymetrix ; DAMAGE ; WILD-TYPE ; arteries ; WALL ; REJECTION ; ARTERY ; METALLOPROTEASE ; RECEPTORS ; MICROARRAY ANALYSIS ; chemokine ; ARCHITECTURE ; MATRIX ; INFILTRATION ; MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES ; CCR5 ; ALLOGRAFT-REJECTION ; CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS
    Abstract: Experimental and human organ transplant studies suggest an important role for chemokine (C-C-motif) receptor-5 (CCR5) in the development of acute and chronic allograft rejection. Because early transplant damage can predispose allografts to chronic dysfunction, we sought to identify potential pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to allograft damage by using wild-type and Ccr5-deficient mice as recipients of fully MHC-mismatched heart and carotid-artery allografts. Gene expression in rejecting heart allografts was analyzed 2 and 6 days after transplantation using Affymetrix GeneChips. Microarray analysis led to identification of four metalloproteinase genes [matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp)3, Mmp12, Mmp13 and a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain (Adam)8] with significantly diminished intragraft mRNA expression in Ccr5-deficient mice at day 6. Accordingly, allografts from Ccr5-deficient mice showed less tissue remodeling and hence better preservation of the myocardial architecture compared with allografts from wild-type recipients. Moreover, survival of cardiac allografts was significantly increased in Ccr5-deficient mice. Carotid artery allografts from Ccr5-deficient recipients showed better tissue preservation, and significant reduction of neointima formation and CD3(+) T cell infiltration. Ccr5 appears to play an important role in transplant-associated arteriosclerosis that may involve metalloproteinase-mediated vessel wall remodeling. We conclude that early tissue remodeling may be a critical feature in the predisposition of allografts to the development of chronic dysfunction
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15307189
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